Designing Functional Foods Handbook
from C.H.I.P.S.

Functional Foods

Measuring and Controlling Food Structure Breakdown and Nutrient Absorption
edited by
D. Julian McClements

Designing Functional Foods: Measuring and Controlling Food Structure Breakdown and Nutrient Absorption covers the following key areas:

  • digestion and absorption of food components including oral physiology and gut microbial ecology
  • advances in methods to study food sensory perception assessing criteria such as simulation of flavour released from foods
  • the implications for the design of functional foods including optimising the flavour of low-fat foods and controlling the release of glucose
  • new methods and future trends

Part One examines oral physiology and gut microbial ecology, and the digestion, absorption and physiological effects of significant food components, such as lipids, proteins and vitamins.

Part Two covers advances in methods to study food sensory perception, digestion and absorption, including in vitro simulation of the stomach and intestines and the use of stable isotopes to determine mineral bioavailability.

The implications for the design of functional foods are considered in Part Three. Controlling lipid bioavailability using emulsion-based delivery systems, designing foods to induce satiation and self-assembling structures in the GI tract are also covered in this section.


Part One: Digestion and Adsorption of Food Components

Oral physiology, mastication and food perception

  • Food processing in the mouth. Influence of food characteristics on chewing
  • Oral physiology and food perception
  • Neuromuscular control of chewing and swallowing
  • Influence of age on oral physiology, food perception, and nutrient intake

Gut microbial ecology

  • Microbial community composition
  • Microbial metabolism of dietary components
  • Interplay between gut transit, pH and the microbial community
  • Role of microbial metabolites in health and gut function
  • New methods for studying the gut microbiota

Digestion and absorption of lipids

  • Structural and physicochemical aspects
  • Lipid digestion and absorption: basics and variability
  • Mechanisms relating lipid absorption and health
  • Implications for the development of functional foods and future trends

Physicochemical basis of the digestion and absorption of triacylglycerol

  • Luminal digestion of dietary lipids
  • Importance of micellar solubilization in the uptake of dietary lipids by enterocytes
  • Mucosal brush border membrane lipid transporters
  • Intracellular metabolism of dietary lipids
  • Formation of intestinal chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins
  • Clinical disorders of intestinal lipid transport

Non-starch polysaccharides in the gastrointestinal tract

  • Types of non-starch polysaccharides
  • Digestion of non-starch polysaccharide
  • Non-starch polysaccharide fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract: research models
  • Mechanisms of health effects of non-starch polysaccharides
  • Non-starch polysaccharides and mucosal adhesion
  • Applications of non-starch polysaccharides in functional foods

Digestion and absorption of proteins and peptides

  • Chemical determination of proteins and amino acids in foods
  • Protein digestion and amino acid absorption
  • Amino acid metabolism
  • Proteins, peptides and amino acids functioning as bioactives
  • The role of proteins, peptides and amino acids in the development of nutritionals and functional foods

Digestion and absorption of lipophilic food micronutrients (vitamins A, E, D and K, carotenoids and phytosterols)

  • Introduction on lipophilic food microconstituents
  • Liposoluble micronutrients: main roles, food sources, recommended dietary allowance or adequate intake
  • Health roles of liposoluble vitamins, carotenoids and phytosterols
  • Main biochemical functions of lipophilic micronutrients
  • Bioavailability

Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds and glucosinolates

  • Phenolic compound bioavailability, absorption and tissue distribution
  • Colonic metabolism of dietary phenolic compounds
  • Colonic microbiota responsible for dietary phenolic compound metabolism
  • Glucosinolates and Isothiocyanates

Developing effective probiotic products: bioavailability and other factors

  • Selecting probiotics
  • Experimental methods for efficacy studies
  • Health benefits of probiotics
  • Proposed mechanisms of probiotic health effects
  • Applications with probiotics

Part Two: Advanced in Research Methods to Study Food Sensory Perception, Digestion and Absorption

Measuring the oral behaviour of foods

  • In vivo visualisation measurements for understanding food behaviour in the mouth
  • Measuring solid food fracture breakdown upon oral processing
  • Measuring soft-solid food breakdown and interaction with saliva
  • Measuring soft-solid food interactions with oral surfaces: lubrication and binding
  • Artificial mouth models

Measurement and simulation of flavour release from foods

  • Measuring flavour
  • Methods to measure the flavour profile during eating and drinking
  • Flavour release: mechanisms, effects of food structure and oral processing
  • Simulating flavour release from food in vitro

Improving in vitro simulation of the stomach and intestines

  • Models of gastrointestinal function
  • The TNO in vitro models of the gastrointestinal-tract (TIM-systems)
  • Model validation
  • Models for different applications
  • Applications

The use of Caco-2 cells in defining nutrient bioavailability: application to iron bioavailabilty of foods

  • Origin of the Caco-2 cell line
  • In vitro measurement of iron bioavailability
  • The physiology of the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model
  • Validation of the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell culture model: comparison to human studies of Fe availability
  • Justification for use of the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model as a screening tool

Techniques for assessing the functional response to food of the stomach and small and large intestine

  • Evolution of techniques to study the gastrointestinal response to feeding
  • Imaging specific regions of the gut using magnetic resonance imaging
  • Compromised gastrointestinal function and gastrointestinal drug studies

Advances in the use of animal models for analysing intestinal cancers and protective effects of dietary components

  • Human colorectal cancer. Intestine carcinogenesis models in rodents
  • Dietary components in colon cancer prevention

Using stable isotopes to determine mineral bioavailability of functional foods

  • Methodological issues in using stable isotopes to study human nutrition
  • Study example: enhancement of calcium absorption by prebiotics in adolescents
  • Results from this study

Part Three: Implications

Optimising the flavour of low-fat foods

  • Flavour perception
  • The role of fat in flavour perception
  • Strategies for replacing fat and implications for flavour

Design of foods for the optimal delivery of basic tastes

  • Oral factors
  • Effects of food structures on tastes
  • Effects of cross-modal interactions on tastes
  • Integrated sensory response modelling

Oral processing and perception of food emulsions: relevance for fat reduction in food

  • Behaviour and perception of emulsions in the oral environment
  • Creating food emulsions with improved texture and mouth feel

Controlling lipid bioavailability using emulsion-based delivery systems

  • Lipid ingestion, digestion and absorption
  • Lipid bioavailability
  • Impact of lipid type and concentration on bioavailability
  • Emulsion-based delivery systems

Controlling the delivery of glucose in foods

  • Glucose delivery and health effects
  • The carbohydrate digestion process and human enzyme properties
  • Structural basis and mechanism of slow digestion carbohydrate
  • Formulating low-glycemic index foods
  • Testing the glycemic index of foods

Protein micro/nano particles for controlled nutraceutical delivery in functional foods

  • Advantages of protein matrices for controlled delivery
  • Formation of food protein micro/nanoparticles
  • Protein structure, physical and biological behavior in gastrointestinal tract
  • Food applications

Self-assembling structures in the gastrointestinal tract

  • Self-structuring liquid products
  • Effects on satiety
  • Incorporation into food products

Designing foods to induce satiation: a flavour perspective

  • Understanding of sensory satiation
  • Design of tasty foods with enhanced satiation

Health food product composition, structure and bioavailability

  • Health foods: the role of bioavailability
  • The role of physiology
  • Bioaccessibility parameters
  • Release of the active ingredients from the food matrix
  • Physiochemical properties and bioavailability
  • Gastric-intestinal of stability of the active ingredien
  • Meal factors
  • “Practical guide”

Coenzyme Q10: functional benefits, dietary uptake and delivery mechanisms

  • Chemical characteristics and human functionality of Coenzyme Q10
  • Functions of Coenzyme Q10
  • Distribution of Coenzyme Q. Aging
  • Diseases – Coenzyme Q10 content dependence
  • Coenzyme Q10 dietary uptake
  • Coenzyme Q10 delivery techniques


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Designing Functional Foods
Measuring and Controlling Food Structure
Breakdown and Nutrient Absorption
edited by D. Julian McClements

2009 • 722 pages • $279.95 + shipping
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