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Detecting Foreign Bodies in Food
edited by M. Edwards

Foreign bodies are the biggest single source of customer complaints for many food manufacturers, retailers and enforcement authorities. Foreign bodies are any undesirable solid objects in food and range from items entirely unconnected with the food such as glass or metal fragments to those related to the food such as bones or fruit stalks.

Detecting Foreign Bodies in Food discusses ways of preventing and managing incidents involving foreign bodies and reviews the range of current methods available for the detection and control of foreign bodies, together with a number of new and developing technologies.

Part 1 addresses management issues, with chapters on identifying potential sources of foreign bodies, good manufacturing practice (GMP), the role of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system and how best to manage incidents involving foreign bodies. The book also includes a chapter on the laboratory identification of foreign bodies.

Part 2 examines methods for the detection and removal of foreign bodies. There are chapters on existing methods, including metal detection, magnets, optical sorting, X-ray systems and physical separation methods. Other chapters consider research on potential new technologies, including surface penetrating radar, microwave reflectance, nuclear magnetic resonance, electrical impedance and ultrasound.

Contents

Part 1 Management issues

Identifying potential sources of foreign bodies in the supply chain
R A Marsh and R E Angold, RHM Technology, UK

  • Sources of contamination in the food chain
  • The role of the manufacturer

GMP, HACCP and the prevention of foreign bodies
R Gaze and A Campbell, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
  • Sources of contamination in the food chain
  • The role of the manufacturer

Identifying potential sources of foreign bodies in the supply chain
R A Marsh and R E Angold, RHM Technology, UK
  • The role of good manufacturing practice (GMP) and prerequisite programmes
  • The role of the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system

Managing incidents involving foreign bodies
T Hines, Leatherhead Food International, UK
  • Managing consumers, manufacturers and retailers
  • The crisis management team
  • The crisis management plan
  • Managing internal and external communications
  • Successful crisis management
  • Categories of consumer complaints

Part 2 Detection and identification

Metal detection
J P Craig, Thermo Goring Kerr, UK

  • The history of metal detection
  • Types of detection systems
  • The balanced coil system
  • Factors affecting the application of metal detection systems
  • Operational and quality control procedures

Magnets
E Apoussidis and I Wells, Eriez Magnetics Europe, UK
  • Magnetic separators and the principles of magnetism
  • Methods of producing magnetic fields: permanent magnets and electromagnets
  • Safety and environmental issues
  • Types of magnetic separator used in the food industry
  • Factors affecting the use of magnets in food processing
  • Examples of magnet use for particular foods
  • Advantages and disadvantages of using magnets

Optical sorting systems
S C Bee and M J Honeywood, Sortex Ltd, UK
  • The principal components of optical sorting systems
  • Inspection systems: selection of wavelength bands, filters and illumination
  • The product feeding, ejection, cleaning and dust extraction systems
  • The electronic processing systems in sorting machines
  • Strengths and weaknesses of colour sorting

Applying optical systems
G Domenech, Polytechnic University of Cartagena, Spain
  • Foreign bodies in fruits and vegetables
  • Developing sorting systems for the removal of foreign bodies
  • Foreign body detection in the processing of olives and potatoes

Microwave reflectance
R Benjamin, University of Bristol, UK
  • Microwave imaging techniques
  • Microwave inspection of food products
  • Strengths and weaknesses of microwave sensors

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging
B Hills, Institute of Food Research, UK
  • Principles of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • The use of NMR and MRI techniques in food processing
  • Factors affecting the development of low-cost on-line MRI foreign body sensors

Surface penetrating radar
U-K Barr, SIK and H Merkel, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
  • Principles of surface penetrating radar
  • Detecting foreign bodies using microwaves
  • Setting up radar systems in food processing
  • Strengths and weaknesses of the radar method

Electrical impedance
R Dowdeswell, Kaiku Ltd, UK
  • Measuring the electrical properties of materials
  • Capacitance, resistance and impedance based systems

Ultrasound
O A Basir and B Zhao, University of Waterloo and G S Mittal, University of Guelph, Canada
  • Principles of ultrasound
  • Types of ultrasonic transducer
  • Ultrasound signal processing to detect foreign bodies
  • The use of ultrasound techniques in food processing

Using X-rays to detect foreign bodies
B G Batchelor, University of Cardiff, E R Davies, Royal Holloway University of London and M Graves, Spectral Fusion Technologies Ltd, UK
  • Principles of x-ray systems
  • Single axis x-ray systems
  • Dual axis x-ray systems
  • Dual energy x-ray imaging
  • Using x-ray systems in practice

Separation systems
R O'Connell, Russell Finex Ltd, UK
  • The need for separation systems
  • The location and design of separation systems
  • Traditional types of separation equipment
  • Innovative types of separation equipment: sieves
  • Innovative types of separation equipment: filters

Identifying foreign bodies
M Edwards, Campden and Chorleywood Food Research Association, UK
  • Definition and sources of foreign bodies
  • Approaches to foreign body identification
  • Foreign bodies of biological origin: identification and testing
  • Foreign bodies of non-biological origin: identification and testing
  • Effects of food processing on foreign bodies and future trends

Index

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Detecting Foreign Bodies in Food
edited by M. Edwards
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