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Chemistry book from C.H.I.P.S.

Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud
by John L. Woodward

Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud shows designers and operators of chemical facilities how to realistically estimate the flammable mass in a cloud of accidentally released material that is capable of igniting.

Estimating the Flammable Mass of a Vapor Cloud provides information on industry experience with flammable vapor clouds, basic concepts of fires and explosions, and an overview of related computer programs.

Contents:

  1. Introduction
    • Why Calculate Flammable Mass
    • How Are Flammable Mass Estimates Used
    • Other CCPS Publications

  2. Overview
    • Context
    • Objectives
    • How to Use Thus Book

  3. Industry Experiences with Flammable Vapor Clouds
    • Property Losses from Vapor Cloud Accidents
    • Examples of Vapor Clouds Events
    • Examples with Postaccident Determination of Flammable Mass

  4. Basic Concept--Fluid Flow, Fires, and Explosions
    • Discharge Characteristics
    • Dispersion Factors
    • Sources of Ignition
    • Flame Characteristics
    • Aerosol Flammability
    • Turbulence Effects
    • Flash Fires
    • Explosions
    • Minimum Flammable Mass for Vapor Cloud Explosions
    • Probability of Vapor Cloud Ignition and Explosion

  5. Determination of Flammable Mass
    • Estimation Methods by Degree of Confinement
    • Methods for Finding the Flammable Mass in Unconfined Vapor Clouds
    • Methods for Finding the Flammable Mass in Partially Confined Vapor Clouds
    • Methods for Finding the Flammable Mass in Confined Vapor Clouds

  6. Overview of Related Computer Programs

  7. Worked Examples
    • Example 10, Unconfined Vapor Cloud--Vapor and Liquid Propane Releases
    • Example 11, Unconfined Vapor Cloud--Effect of Wind Speed
    • Example 12, Partially Confined Vapor Cloud Explosion--Vinyl Chloride Monomer Release
    • Example 13, Partially Confined Vapor Cloud Explosion--Total Petroleum LaMede Refinery Explosion, November 1992
    • Example 14, Partially Confined Vapor Cloud--Multiple Congested Areas
    • Example 15, Confined Vapor Clouds

  8. Recommendations for Future Work
    • Calculating Flammable Mass Profiles Along a Vapor Cloud
    • Resolving the Minimum Explosive Mass Issue
    • Contribution of Aerosols to Explosive Mass
    • Dispersion Modeling Around Plant Structure
    • Improved Modeling of Jets Impacting Surfaces
    • Models That Account for Turbulence Spectra
    • Reconciling Indoor and Outdoor Explosion Models
    • Calculate Net Efficiencies for TNT Equivalent Models from Historical Events
Index

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Estimating the Flammable
Mass of a Vapor Cloud

by John L. Woodward

289 pages $141.95 + shipping
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