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Practical Food Safety Guide from C.H.I.P.S.

Food Chemical Safety
Volume 1

Contaminants
edited by David Watson

Chemical contaminants in food, from pesticides and veterinary drug residues to contamination from food packaging, are a major concern for the food industry. Written by a distinguished international team of contributors, this authoritative collection describes the main chemical contaminants, their health implications, how they contaminate food products, methods of detection and how such contaminants can be controlled.

Part 1 of the book describes ways of detecting and analysing contaminants. There are chapters on the use of risk analysis in establishing priorities, the selection and quality control of available analytical techniques, and new analytical methods such as bioassays.

Part 2 consists of chapters on particular contaminants including: veterinary drug residues, inorganic contaminants such as metals and nitrate, environment organic contaminants such as dioxins and PCBs, chemical migration from food packaging, pesticides and mycotoxins.

Part 3 of the book examines the regulatory context, with chapters on international regulation, particularly the EU and the United States.

Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction
D Watson, Food Standards Agency, London, UK

  • Background
  • Pesticides
  • Veterinary drugs
  • Persistent environmental chemicals
  • Processing contaminants
  • Migration from materials and articles in contact with food
  • Naturally occurring toxicants
  • Control measures
  • Current and future trends
  • Dedication and acknowledgement
  • References

Part 1: Analytical methods

Chapter 2: Risk analysis
D R Tennant, Consultant, UK

  • Introduction
  • Hazard identification in the food supply chain
  • Dose-response characterisation
  • Exposure analysis
  • Risk evaluation
  • Methods for risk management
  • Future trends in risk analysis
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • References

Chapter 3: Analytical methods: quality control and selection
R Wood, Food Standards Agency, London, UK
  • Introduction
  • Legislative requirements
  • Laboratory accreditation and quality control
  • Proficiency testing
  • Analytical methods
  • Standardised methods of analysis for contaminants
  • The future direction for methods of analysis
  • References
  • Appendix: Information for potential contractors on the analytical quality assurance requirements for food chemical surveillance exercises

Chapter 4: Molecular imprint-based sensors in contaminant analysis
P D Patel, Leatherhead Food Research Association, UK
  • Introduction
  • The principles of molecularly imprinted polymer-based techniques
  • The development and application of MIP-based sensors
  • Case studies: contaminant analysis
  • Future trends
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

Chapter 5: Bioassays in contaminant analysis
L A P Hoogenboom, State Institute for Quality Control of Agricultural Products (RIKILT), Wageningen, Netherlands
  • Introduction
  • Dioxins and the DR-CALUX bioassay
  • The use of bioassays for other groups of compounds
  • Future developments
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
Part 2: Particular contaminants

Chapter 6: Veterinary drug residues
S N Dixon, Food Standards Agency, London, UK
  • Introduction
  • Control of veterinary products in the UK
  • Chemical substances commonly used in veterinary medicines
  • Surveillance for veterinary drug residues
  • Analytical methods employed in drug residues surveillance
  • Results of surveillance for veterinary drug residues in the UK (1998)
  • Potential effects on human health of veterinary drug residues in food
  • Current issues relating to residues of veterinary drugs in the UK
  • Summary
  • Further reading

Chapter 7: Inorganic contaminants in food
N. Harrison, Food Standards Agency, London, UK
  • Introduction
  • Metals and metalloids
  • Nitrate and nitrite
  • References

Chapter 8: Environmental organic contaminants in food
N Harrison, Food Standards Agency, London, UK
  • Introduction
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
  • Dioxins and PCBs
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons
  • Phthalic acid esters
  • Endocrine disrupters
  • References

Chapter 9: Chemical migration from food packaging
L Castle, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, York, UK
  • Introduction
  • Chemical migration and the main factors that control it
  • The range and sources of chemicals in food packaging that pose a potential risk
  • Research on health issues
  • Regulatory context
  • Migration testing
  • Case studies
  • Suggested further reading

Chapter 10: Pesticides
I Shaw and R Vannoort, Institute of Environmental Science and Research, Christchurch, New Zealand
  • Introduction
  • Monitoring pesticides in food
  • High risk groups
  • The UK's approach to pesticide surveillance
  • Findings from the UK pesticide monitoring scheme
  • Human exposure monitoring
  • Should we ban pesticides?
  • References

Chapter 11: Mycotoxins
J E Smith, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
  • Introduction
  • Health implications of mycotoxins
  • Analytical methods
  • Application of HACCP systems to reduce mycotoxin presence
  • Prevention and control of mycotoxins
  • Conclusion and future trends
  • References
Part 3: Regulation

Chapter 12: The international regulation of chemical contaminants in food
T Berg, Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Soborg, Denmark
  • Introduction
  • The nature of international regulation: Codex Alimentarius
  • Decision making and enforcement mechanisms
  • The Codex General Standard on Contaminants and Toxins in Food
  • Future trends
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • References

Chapter 13: The regulation of chemical contaminants in foodstuffs in the European Union
S A Slorach, National Food Administration, Uppsala, Sweden
  • Introduction
  • Scientific advisory committees
  • Pesticide residues
  • Veterinary drug residues
  • Mercury and histamine in fishery products
  • Other chemical contaminants
  • Future trends
  • References

Chapter 14: Contaminant regulation and management in the United States: the case of pesticides
C K Winter, University of California, Davis, USA
  • Introduction
  • Pesticide regulation in the US
  • Regulatory monitoring of pesticides in the US
  • Managing pesticides in foods in the US
  • Improving the management of pesticides in food
  • Future trends
  • Further information and advice
  • References

Index

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Food Chemical Safety
Volume 1: Contaminants
edited by David Watson
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