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Veterinary Medicine Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep and Cattle
Biology and Control
by Ian Scott

Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep and Cattle provides an over-arching view of past, present and suggested future strategies for control of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in sheep and cattle.

Topics include:

  • nutritional interventions
  • biological control
  • breeding for desirable genetics
  • artificially improving immunity to infection
Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep and Cattle also offers useful recommendations for program development.

Contents

1. Nematode parasites

  • The nematodes
  • The important nematode genera and species parasitising ruminant livestock
  • Abomasal genera
  • Small intestinal genera
  • Large intestinal genera
  • Nematode evolution
  • The transition to parasitism
  • Nematode biology
  • Nematode genetics
  • Nematode physiology
  • The dauer larva
  • Anhydrobiosis
  • The nematode life cycle
  • Niches occupied by parasitic nematodes within the vertebrate host
  • The lifespan of parasitic nematodes
2. Pathophysiology of nematode infections
  • Are parasites always harmful?
  • Defining ‘harm’
  • The abomasum
  • The small intestine
  • The large intestine
  • The impact of parasites on overall gut function
  • Effects beyond the gut
3. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing ruminants
  • Ecology of GINs – pasture
  • Egg to L3 development
  • Effect of host
  • Survival of L3
  • Translation of infective larvae
  • Grazing behaviour and the avoidance of parasites
  • Patterns of infection
  • Overdispersion of parasites
  • Epidemiology of ‘parasitism’
  • An increase in the infective mass
  • Alteration in the susceptibility of stock
  • Arrested development and hypobiosis
  • Introduction of susceptible stock onto an infected area
  • Insufficient age-related immunity
  • The introduction of infected stock to a clean environment
  • Epidemiology of cattle parasites
  • Population biology in the parasitic phase
  • Sheep parasites
  • Cattle parasites
4. The principles of gastrointestinal nematode control
  • Control of parasites with anthelmintic drenches
  • Drench programmes
  • Strategic drenching programmes
  • Principles of worm control in cattle
  • Control of GIN by grazing management
  • Alternate/mixed grazing with different host species or stock classes
  • Resistance to treatment
5. Anthelmintics
  • What are anthelmintics?
  • How effective does an anthelmintic have to be?
  • Which species does an anthelmintic against GIN need to remove?
  • Description, efficacy, profile and mode of action of anthelmintic families
  • Combination of anthelmintic treatments
  • Modifying the delivery of anthelmintics
  • Parenteral administration
  • Controlled release of anthelmintics
  • Injectable formulations
6. Anthelmintic resistance
  • Evolution of anthelmintic resistance
  • Worldwide occurrence of anthelmintic resistance
  • Resistance to one or more active families by one or more species
  • Impact of resistance on productivity
  • Mechanisms of resistance
  • Inheritance of resistance
  • Detection of resistance
7. Drenching and resistance
  • Frequency of treatment
  • Under-dosing
  • Persistent anthelmintics
  • Why use persistent drenches?
  • The provision of safe pasture and resistance
  • Persistence and efficacy
  • Therapeutic efficacy and resistance – ‘head selection’
  • Prophylactic efficacy and resistance – ‘tail selection’
  • Heads or tails?
  • Persistent activity, immunity and resistance
  • Persistent activity, density dependence and resistance
  • Drench rotation
  • Controlling resistance by drench rotation
  • Drench rotation within seasons
  • Modelling drench rotation
  • Combination anthelmintics
  • Removing resistant worm burdens
  • Efficacy of single actives vs. combinations
  • The odds are against multiple mutations
  • Resistance is already present to one or more constituent active
8. Worm control and resistance management
  • What is refugia?
  • Why do we need refugia?
  • How to produce and utilise refugia
  • Importation of resistant parasites
  • A twin approach to worm control and resistance management – utilising refugia and combination drenches
9. ‘Non-chemical’ control options
  • Anthelmintic plants
  • Plant material
  • Plant extracts
  • PSM as anthelmintics
  • Forage legumes
  • Practical applicability on-farm
  • Other anthelmintic plants
  • Micro-predacious fungi
  • Homoeopathy
10. Nutrition and parasitism
  • Metabolic cost of parasitism
  • Metabolic cost of infection
  • Metabolic costs of immunity
  • Parasites and nutrition: a nutrient utilisation framework
  • Supplementation for increased resilience to parasites
  • Supplementation for increased resistance to parasites
  • Reproducing animals
  • Undernutrition and parasitism
  • Micronutrients and parasitism
  • Improving nutrient availability
  • Forage plants and parasitism
  • Supplementation and immunity: increasing or enabling?
11. Animal genetics and parasitism
  • Inter-species variability
  • Inter-breed variability
  • Intra-breed variability
  • Resistance vs. productivity
  • Resilience
  • Pasture contamination, resistance and resilience
  • Markers for resistance and resilience
  • Phenotypic markers
  • Genotypic markers
  • Genetics, worm control and resistance management
12. The immune response to parasites
  • Evolution of the host–parasite relationship
  • Immunity and GIN population dynamics
  • The immune phenotype
  • Immunological unresponsiveness
  • Components of host responses to GI parasites
  • Adaptive immune responses to GINs
  • The anti-GIN immune response in cattle to O. ostertagi
  • Impact of immunity on parasites
  • Immunopathology
  • Periparturient rise
  • Utilising immune responses to control GIN
  • Natural antigens
  • Hidden antigens
  • What next for immunoparasitology research?
Index

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Gastrointestinal Nematodes of Sheep and Cattle
Biology and Control
by Ian Scott

2010 • 242 pages • $108.95 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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