Marine Science Reference from C.H.I.P.S.

Marine Biofouling:
Colonization Processes
and Defenses

by Alexander I. Railkin

  • Examines the colonization processes that determine the formation of hard substrate communities
  • Explains the causes of micro- and macroorganism concentration on water/hard body interfaces
  • Constructs mathematical models for colonization processes and biofouling control
  • Analyzes the common causes of colonization of man-made structures
  • Reviews the main groups of foulers, from microorganisms to invertebrates to macroalgae
  • Details the biological mechanisms and principles of ecologically safe defenses against biofouling

Marine Biofouling: Colonization Processes and Defenses is the English language version of a comprehensive work by eminent Russian scientist Alexander I. Railkin, who details the causes of vast biomass concentrations on submerged hard substrates. He also delivers a quantitative description of colonization processes and provides detailed models for preventing biofouling.

This volume expounds on many topics rarely discussed in the frame of one book: types of hard substrate communities; comparison of hard and soft substrate communities; harm caused by micro- and macrofoulers; larval taxes and drift; mechanisms of settlement and attachment of microorganisms, invertebrates, ascidians and macroalgae; the impact of currents; protection from epibionts; industrial biofouling protection; successions on hard substrates; and the recovery of disturbed communities or the self-assembly of communities. The text includes much Russian-language research translated for the first time.

Through a thorough examination of substrate organisms and an exploration of preventive methods, this monograph prepares those concerned with marine biology to help protect the self-purifying organisms that keep marine ecosystems healthy and productive.


  1. Communities on Submerged Hard Bodies
    • Organisms and Communities Inhabiting Surfaces of Hard Bodies
    • The Phenomenon of Organisms Concentration on Surfaces of Hard Bodies
    • Biofouling as a Source of Technical Obstacles

  2. Biofouling as a Process
    • Colonization
    • Primary Succession
    • Recovery Successions
    • Self-Assembly of Communities

  3. Temporary Planktonic Existence
    • Release of Dispersal Forms into Plankton
    • Buoyancy and Locomotion of Propagules
    • Taxes and Vertical Distribution of Larvae
    • The Offshore and Oceanic Drift

  4. Settlement of Larvae
    • The Reasons of Passing over to Periphytonic Existence
    • Taxes and Distribution of Larvae During Settlement
    • Sensory Systems Participating in the Substrate Selection
    • Selectivity During Settlement

  5. Induction and Stimulation of Settlement by a Hard Surface
    • Types of Induction and Stimulation of Settlement
    • Distant Chemical Induction
    • Contact Heterospecific Chemical Induction
    • Conspecific Chemical Induction and Aggregations
    • Stimulation of Settlement, Attachment, and Metamorphosis by Microfouling
    • The Influence of Physical Surface Factors on Settlement
    • Combined Influence of Surface Factors on Settlement. The Hierarchy of Factors
    • Settlement on the Surface Technical Objects

  6. Attachment, Development and Growth
    • Attachment of Microorganisms
    • Mechanisms of Attachment of Larvae and Spores of Macroorganisms
    • Natural Inductors of Settlement, Attachment, and Metamorphosis
    • Universal Mechanisms of Attachment
    • Growth and Colonization of the Hard surface

  7. Fundamentals of the Quantitative Theory of Colonization
    • Mathematical Models of Accumulation
    • Mathematical Models of Feeding and Growth
    • Gradient Distribution of Foulers over Surfaces in a Flow

  8. General Regularities of Biofouling
    • Causes, Mechanisms, and Limits of Biofouling Concentration on Hard Surfaces
    • Evolution of Hard-Substrate Communities

  9. Protection of Man-Made Structures Against Biofouling
    • Physical Protection
    • Commercial Chemobiocidal Protection
    • Ecological Consequences of Toxicant Application

  10. Ecologically Safe Protection from Biofouling
    • Defense Against Epibionts
    • Natural and Industrial Anticolonization Protection
    • Repellent Protection
    • Antiadhesive Protection
    • Biocidal Protection
    • Prospects of Developing Ecologically Safe Anticolonization Protection

  11. The General Model of Protection against Biofouling


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Marine Biofouling:
Colonization Processes and Defenses

by Alexander I. Railkin
2003 320 pages $158.95 + shipping

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