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Mass Transport and Reactive Barriers in Packaging
Theory, Applications, and Design
by Stanislav Solovyov

Mass Transport and Reactive Barriers in Packaging is a systematic and comprehensive presentation of the structure and barrier properties of polymer films.

Starting from a presentation of how gases and liquid solutes permeate films, Mass Transport and Reactive Barriers in Packaging explains the performance limits of polymer barriers under multiple conditions and with many types of permeants.

Information on mass transport within films is related to film structure, and in turn is used to illustrate how engineers can predict properties and performance for single and multilayer barriers.

The technology offered here will enable packaging engineers, food scientists, and polymer specialists to design highly specific barriers using polymers—by providing the tools to carry out materials selection, multilayer design, and chemical analysis.


1. Overview

  • Audience
  • Theoretical Scope
  • Terminology
  • Principles of Active Packaging
  • Introduction to Membranes
  • Barrier Materials
  • Classification of Reactive Processes in Membranes
  • Multilayer Reactive-Passive Structures
  • Omissions

2. Steady-state Theory for Homogeneous Passive and Reactive Barriers

  • Fundamentals of Gas Permeation Through Polymeric Membranes
  • Diffusion Equations
  • Permeability of Isotropic Passive Membrane
  • Reference Lead and Lag Times
  • Diffusion Coupled with Homogeneous Reaction
  • Reversible Reactions and Species Mobility
  • Membrane with Irreversible Catalytic Reaction
  • Effective Transmission Rate and Barrier Performance
  • Zero Effective Flux Criterion

3. Permeation Through Passive Heterogeneous Structures

  • Multilayer Film Technology
  • Transport Through Two Layer Laminates
  • Generalized Multilayer Barriers
  • Structural Identity
  • Failure of Permeability Concept
  • Continuously Varying Heterogeneous Media
  • Biasing Potentials and Convection

4. Theory of Transient Permeation

  • Transient Diffusion without Reaction
  • Reactive Membrane with Non-Catalytic Scavenger
  • Simplified Wavefront Solution for Reactive Monolayer
  • Scavenger Exhaustion Time for Instantaneous Reaction
  • Two Layer Reactive-Passive Structures in Steady-state
  • Two Layer Passive-Reactive Structures in Steady-state
  • The Concept of Permeable Reaction Wavefront
  • Steady-Unsteady Solution Matching Method for Dynamic Interfaces
  • Permeation Dynamics and Transient Ingress
  • Effects of Reactive Membrane Parameters on Steady-state Lead and Lag Times
  • Passive-to-Reactive Transition in Activated Reactive Layer

Interactions with Package Contents

  • Introduction to Interphase Equilibrium
  • Unidirectional Diffusion into Packaged Product
  • Solute Consumption by Packaged Product
  • Bidirectional Diffusion into Reactive Membrane
  • Solute Removal from Package Headspace
  • Evaluation of Product Shelf Life

Structure-Property Relationships in Reactive Barrier Structures

  • Normalization of Parameters
  • Scavenger Placement in Homogeneous Polymer Matrix
  • Scavenger Dispersed in Multilayer Structure
  • Transient Permeation Through Reactive-Passive Membrane
  • Transient Permeation Through Passive-Reactive Membrane
  • Implications for Barrier Design

7. Optimized Design of Multilayer Reactive Barriers

  • Restrictions Imposed by Layer Functionality
  • Factors Controlling Optimal Barrier Design
  • Generalized Solutions for Multiple Passive Layers
  • Optimal Placement of Reactive Layer
  • Decision Guide for Reactive Layer Material Selection

8. Experimental Methods

  • Transport Properties of Materials
  • Reactive Capacity of Scavengers
  • Scavenging Reaction Rate in Polymeric Matrices

9. Polymers as Barrier Materials

  • Conventional Polymers in Packaging
  • Molecular Structure and Barrier Performance
  • Polymer Blends
  • Filled Polymer Composites
  • Effects of Temperature
  • Effects of Humidity
  • Multicomponent Diffusion
  • Concentration Dependent Diffusion

10. Nanocomposites

  • Nanocomposite Technology for Enhancing Barrier Properties
  • Barrier Improvement from Platelet Materials
  • Reactive Nanocomposites Based on Nylon-6
  • Preparation and Properties of Nylon-6 Nanocomposites
  • Multilayer Structures with Composite Layers
  • High Barrier Polyamide Nanocomposites
  • Scavenging Rate in Reactive Composite Membranes


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Mass Transport and Reactive Barriers in Packaging
Theory, Applications, and Design
by Stanislav Solovyov

2008 (available now) • 541 pages • $189.00 + shipping
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