Wastewater Microbiology Reference from C.H.I.P.S.

Nitrification and Denitrification in the Activated Sludge Process

by Michael H. Gerardi

A practical guide to wastewater treatment for plant technicians and operators!

This book, the first in a series on the microbiology of wastewater treatment, comprises the critical topics of cost-effective operation, permit compliance, process control, and troubleshooting in wastewater treatment plants.

Avoiding the technical jargon, chemical equations, and kinetics that typically accompany such texts, Nitrification and Denitrification in the Activated Sludge Process directly addresses plant operators and technicians, providing necessary information for understanding the microbiology and biological conditions that occur in the treatment process.

Of special interest to wastewater treatment plant operators are the bacteria that degrade nitrogenous wastes–the nitrifying bacteria–and the bacteria that degrade carbonaceous wastes–the cBOD-removing bacteria. Both groups of bacteria need to be routinely monitored and operational conditions favorably adjusted to ensure desired nitrification. Each chapter in this groundbreaking study offers a better understanding of the importance of nitrification and denitrification and the bacteria involved in these crucial processes.

Nitrification and Denitrification in the Activated Sludge Process is an ideal companion for operators and technicians of wastewater treatment plants as they study to receive certification in their field, now required in more than thirty states. Sanitary engineers, chemists, microbiologists, and educators will benefit from this comprehensive guide.


  1. Overview
    1. Nitrogen: Environmental and Wastewater Concerns.
    2. The Oxidation States of Nitrogen.
    3. Nitrogenous Compounds.
    4. Bacteria.
    5. The Activated Sludge Process

  2. Nitrification
    1. Introduction to Nitrification.
    2. Nitrifying Bacteria.
    3. Organotrophs.
    4. The Wastewater Nitrogen Cycle.
    5. Nitrogen Assimilation.
    6. Forms of Nitrification.
    7. Indicators of Nitrification.
    8. Nitrite Ion Accumulation.
    9. BOD.
    10. Dissolved Oxygen.
    11. Alkalinity and pH.
    12. Temperature.
    13. Inhibition and Toxicity.
    14. Mode of Operation.
    15. Classification of Nitrification Systems.
    16. Troubleshooting Key and Tables

  3. Denitrification
    1. Introduction to Denitrification.
    2. Denitrifying Bacteria.
    3. Biochemical Pathway and Respiration.
    4. Gaseous End Products.
    5. Sources of Nitrite Ions and Nitrate Ions.
    6. Operational Factors Influencing Denitrification.
    7. Substrate or cBOD.
    8. Free Molecular Oxygen.
    9. The Occurrence of Denitrification.
    10. Monitoring and Correcting Accidental Denitrification.
    11. Zoning.
    12. Benefits of Denitrification

Appendix I: The Gram Stain
Appendix II: F/M, HRT, MCRT

Abbreviations and Acronyms
Chemical Compounds and Elements

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Nitrification and Denitrification
in the Activated Sludge Process

by Michael H. Gerardi
193 pages • $63.95 + shipping

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