Paramecium Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Genetics and Epigenetics
by Geoffrey Beale

As a eukaryotic model, Paramecium is well suited for genetic analysis. Paramecium explores how to use this protozoan as a basis for studying complex cells.


  • Describes the morphology, reproduction, and life cycle stages of Paramecium
  • Outlines methods for studying genetic processes, such as Mendelian, caryonidal, and cytoplasmic transmissions
  • Offers detailed accounts of bygone hypotheses, such as the plasmagene and metagon hypotheses
  • Examines epigenetic mechanisms in antigenic expression and cortical inheritances
  • Explores interesting new work on ciliate genetics, including a gene cloning method via functional complementation and homology-dependent inheritance

Paramecium examines the assorted mating types of the genus and how these mating types are determined.


  1. Genetics
  2. Paramecium
  3. The Early Workers
  4. Discarded Hypotheses
  5. Epigenetics

Mating Types in Paramecium

  1. Mating Types and the Species Problem in Ciliates

General Description of the Protista and Paramecium

  1. Morphology
  2. Reproduction
  3. The Life Cycle

Methods of Studying Genetic Processes in Organisms of the Paramecium aurelia Species Group

  1. Isolation of Cells and Preparation of Pure Clones
  2. Obtaining Complementary Mating Types
  3. Mendelian Transmission
  4. Caryonidal Transmission
  5. Cytoplasmic Transmission
  6. Methods of Identifying Genetically Defined Genes with Their DNA

The Determination of Mating Types in Paramecium

  1. Caryonidal Inheritance
  2. The Cytoplasmic Effect
  3. Independence of the Cytoplasmic Effect and the Phenotype
  4. The O* Phenotype: A New Cytoplasmic State
  5. The Pure E Mutant
  6. Micronuclear Determination
  7. Selfers
  8. Mating Types in Species Other Than Those in the P. aurelia Complex
  9. A Hypothesis to Explain Mating Type Inheritance

Symbionts and Mitochondria of Paramecium

  1. The Plasmagene Hypothesis
  2. The Kinds of Symbionts
  3. The Metagon
  4. Mitochondria

Determination of I-Antigens

  1. The Immobilization Test and Serotypes
  2. The Genetic System of I-Antigens
  3. Chemistry and Molecular Biology of I-Antigens
  4. Control of Expression of I-Antigen Genes
  5. Ploidy Levels
  6. Activity of Micronuclei and Macronuclei
  7. Programmed Chromosomal Breaks and Telomeres
  8. Internal Eliminated Sequences
  9. Induced Mendelian Deletions
  10. Maintaining Genic Balance at Macronuclear Division
  11. The Paramecium Genome Project
  12. Nuclear Dualism

Ribosomal RNA and DNA

  1. The Early Work of Findly and Gall
  2. More Recent Studies
  3. Micronuclear DNA and a Model
  4. Variants

Cortical Morphogenesis

  1. Double Animals
  2. Cortical Mutants
  3. Trichocysts


  1. Mutants
  2. Genetics
  3. Cell Models
  4. Measuring the Electric Properties of the Cell Membrane
  5. The Avoiding Reaction
  6. Ion Channels
  7. Behavioral Responses Other Than the Avoiding Reaction


  1. Symbionts and Mitochondria
  2. Serotype Inheritance
  3. Mating Type Inheritance
  4. Cortical Inheritance
  5. Homology-Dependent


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Genetics and Epigenetics
by Geoffrey Beale

2008 216 pages $99.95 + shipping
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