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Food Phytochemicals Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Phytochemical Functional Foods
edited by Ian Johnson
and Gary Williamson

Features:

  • Reviews research on the health benefits of phytochemicals
  • Considers safety and quality issues in developing phytochemical products
  • Written by an international team of experts
  • A standard reference on one of the most important sectors in the functional foods market

Edited by two leading experts in the field, and with a distinguished international team of contributors, Phytochemical Functional Foods assesses the evidence for their health benefits and reviews the key issues involved in successful product development.

Part 1 reviews research on the health benefits of phytochemicals, including chapters on cardiovascular disease, cancer, bone and gastrointestinal health, as well as the functional benefits of particular groups of phytochemicals such as phytoestogens, carotenoids and flavonoids.

Part 2 considers the important safety and quality issues in developing phytochemical products. There are chapters on establishing appropriate intake levels, testing the safety of phytochemicals and establishing health claims through clinical trials. Part 2 also covers such issues as extracting and enhancing phytochemical compounds for use in food products.

Phytochemical Functional Foods will establish itself as a standard reference on one of the most important sectors in the functional foods market.

Contents

  1. The Health Benefits of Phytochemicals

    Phenolic compounds and health: an introduction

    • Introduction: classes of phenolic compounds
    • Epidemiological evidence for the functional benefits of phenolics
    • The antioxidant activity of phenolics
    • Testing the functional benefits of phenolics
    • Biomarkers and bioavailability

    Nutritional phenolics and cardiovascular disease

    • LDL oxidation and atherogenesis
    • Polyphenols and cell response
    • Polyphenols and activated NF-kB
    • Other aspects of polyphenols as modulators of signal transduction
    • Indirect evidence for polyphenol activity in atherogenesis
    • Conclusion and future trends
    • List of abbreviations

    Phytochemicals and cancer: an overview

    • What is cancer?
    • The nature of tumour growth
    • Models of carcinogenesis
    • Diet and gene interactions
    • Cancer risk and particular nutrients
    • Phytochemicals
    • Carotenoids
    • Flavonoids
    • Phytoestrogens
    • Glucosinolates
    • Other nutritional factors

    Food-borne glucosinolates and cancer

    • Sources, structures and metabolites of the glucosinolates
    • Digestion and absorption
    • Glucosinolate breakdown products and cancer
    • Blocking the initiation phase
    • Suppressing the promotion phase

    Phytoestrogens and health

    • Mechanisms of phytoestrogen action: receptor and non-receptor mediated effects
    • Other effects of phytoestrogens
    • The health effects of phytoestrogens: osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease and thyroid function
    • The health effects of phytoestrogens: central nervous system and immune function
    • The health benefits of phytoestrogens: cancer
    • The health benefits of phytoestrogens: fertility, development and hormonal effects
    • Future trends and priorities for research

    Phytoestrogens and bone health

    • Composition and metabolism of phyto-oestrogens
    • Human studies on soy isoflavones and bone maintenance
    • Animal studies on soy isoflavones and bone maintenance
    • Mechanisms of action of isoflavones in bone health
    • Dietary recommendations

    Carotenoids in food: bioavailability and functional benefits

    • Introduction: the concept of bioavailability
    • The functional benefits of carotenoids: vision, cancer and cardiovascular disease
    • Factors affecting carotenoid bioavailability: food sources and intakes
    • Release from food structures: maximising availability for absorption
    • Absorption and metabolism
    • Methods for predicting absorption
    • Tissue concentrations

    The functional benefits of flavonoids: the case of tea

    • Introduction: types of tea
    • Flavonoids and other components of tea
    • Functional benefits: cancer
    • Functional benefits: anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties
    • Functional benefits: cardioprotective and neuroprotective functions
    • Mechanisms of anticarcinogenic and other activity
    • Potential side-effects of tea constituents
    • Tea drinking and flavonoid intake
    • Tea extracts and their applications
    • Analytical methods for detecting flavonoids

    Phytochemicals and gastrointestinal health

    • The gastrointestinal tract
    • The influence of phytochemicals on gastrointestinal function
    • Phytochemicals and digestion
    • Phytochemicals, waste and toxin elimination and other functions
    • Phytochemicals, gastrointestinal bacteria and gut health

  2. Developing Phytochemical Functional Products

    Assessing the intake of phytoestrogens: isoflavones

    • Assessing the dietary intake of isoflavones
    • Factors affecting phytoestrogen absorption and metabolism
    • Isoflavone intake and health
    • Establishing appropriate intake levels for isoflavones

    Testing the safety of phytochemicals

    • Introduction: the health benefits of phytochemicals
    • Evaluating the safety of phytochemicals in food
    • Risk evaluation of food chemicals
    • Potential food carcinogens
    • Problems in assessing safety: the example of B-Carotene
    • Improving risk assessment of phytochemicals

    Investigating the health benefits of phytochemicals: the use of clinical trials

    • Types of clinical trials
    • Hypothesis testing and trial design
    • Assessing sample size
    • Other issues in making trials effective

    genetic enhancement of phytochemicals: the case of carotenoids

    • Carotenoids in plants: structure
    • Carotenoids in plants: distribution
    • The functional benefits of carotenoids
    • Carotenoid biosynthesis and encoding genes
    • Strategies for transformation to enhance carotenoids
    • Examples of genetically modified crops with altered carotenoid levels

    Developing phytochemical products: a case study

    • Chemical enhancement of phytochemicals: the case of phloem
    • Heating and extraction of phenolic compounds
    • Measuring phenolic compounds
    • The functional benefits of phloem
    • Testing functional benefits

    The impact of food processing on phytochemicals: the case of antioxidants

    • Introduction: natural antioxidants present in foods
    • Changes in antioxidants: mechanisms of action
    • Changes during heating: water as the heat transfer medium
    • Changes during heating: air as the heat transfer medium
    • Changes during heating: where energy is transferred in waves
    • Changes during heating: oil as the heat transfer medium
    • Changes in antioxidants during non-thermal processes
    • Changes in antioxidants during storage

    Optimizing the use of phenolic compounds in foods

    • Analyzing antioxidant activity in food
    • Antioxidant interaction in food models
    • Polyphenols in processed foods
    • Bioavailability of plant phenols

    Phytochemical products: rice bran

    • Introduction: stabilised rice bran
    • Phytonutrients in rice bran
    • Phytonutrients with particular health benefits
    • Functional benefits: cancer
    • Functional benefits: cardiovascular disease and diabetes
    • Functional benefits: immune function
    • Functional benefits: liver, gastrointestinal and colonic health

Index

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Phytochemical Functional Foods
edited by Ian Johnson and Gary Williamson
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