Dermatology Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Principles and Practice of Skin Toxicology
by Robert P. Chilicott

Principles and Practice of Skin Toxicology provides a “bottom up” approach to studying skin toxicology.

Principles and Practice of Skin Toxicology clearly outlines basic concepts, cites historical and modern references and contains a dictionary for easy reference.


  • Different sections cover skin structure and function, principles and measurement of skin absorption, clinical aspects of dermal toxicity and in vitro alternatives.
  • A section on regulatory and legislative aspects includes case studies from the UK that fulfill European Union and US FDA requirements.
  • A glossary provides definitions of technical terms, and the chapters contain an introduction, learning boxes and summary section for ease of use.
  • Includes a chapter on drug delivery through the skin.
  • Addresses risk assessment: a key area for the interpretation of skin absorption data that is rarely covered.


1. Cutaneous anatomy and function

  • Surface features
  • Functional histology of the epidermis and associated structures
  • Species differences

2. Biochemistry of the skin

  • Protein synthesis and organisation during epidermal differentiation
  • Lipid synthesis and organisation during epidermal differentiation
  • Lipid classes in the stratum corneum
  • Stratum corneum turnover
  • Biotransformations in skin

3. Skin photobiology

  • Photoprotection and melanogenesis
  • Increased environmental ultraviolet radiation exposure and its link with photoageing and skin cancer
  • Mitochondrial DNA as a biomarker of sun exposure in human skin
  • Apoptosis
  • Sun protection

Part I Skin Absorption

4. Skin as a route of entry

  • Salient anatomical features of the stratum corneum – the ‘brick and mortar model’
  • Species and regional variation in skin structure
  • Species and regional variation in skin permeability
  • Intra- and inter-individual variation in percutaneous absorption
  • Effect of age on skin barrier function
  • Role of skin appendages
  • The in vitro skin sandwich model
  • Penetration of particles through appendages

5. Physicochemical Factors Affecting Skin Absorption

  • Physicochemical properties
  • Exposure considerations
6. Principles of Diffusion and Thermodynamics

  • Some definitions pertaining to skin absorption kinetics
  • Basic concepts of diffusion
  • Fick’s Laws of diffusion
  • Thermodynamic activity
  • Skin absorption of a substance from two different vehicles
  • Partitioning
  • Diffusivity
  • Skin absorption data and risk assessments

7. In vivo measurements of skin absorption

  • Why conduct in vivo studies?
  • Ethics and legislation
  • Standard methodology: OECD Guideline 427
  • Alternative in vivo methods

8. In vitro percutaneous absorption measurements

  • Regulatory guidelines
  • Why assess percutaneous absorption in vitro?
  • Basic principle of in vitro percutaneous absorption measurements
  • Choice of diffusion cell
  • Skin membrane considerations
  • Integrity measurements
  • Choice of receptor fluid and sampling considerations
  • Test material considerations
  • Application of test preparation to the skin
  • Examples of results from in vitro skin absorption studies
  • What is considered to be absorbed?
  • Micro-autoradiography

Part II Toxicological Assessment

9. Skin immunology and sensitisation

  • Skin sensitisation
  • Identification of skin sensitisers
  • Risk assessment
  • Other types of allergic skin reaction
  • Future prospects

10. In vitro phototoxicity assays

  • In vitro strategies for phototoxicity testing
  • The UV/visible absorption spectrum as a pre-screen for phototoxicity
  • In vitro assays for phototoxicity using monolayer cultures
  • In vitro assays for photoallergenicity
  • In vitro assays for phototoxicity using human 3-D skin models
11. In vitro alternatives for irritation and corrosion assessment

  • Acute dermal irritation/corrosion
  • Validation/regulatory status of in vitro assays for skin corrosion
  • In vitro tests for skin corrosion
  • Validation/regulatory status of in vitro assays for skin irritation
  • In vitro tests for skin irritation

12. Instruments for measuring skin toxicity

  • Skin surface pH
  • Biomechanical properties
  • Sebum
  • Skin surface contours
  • Thickness
  • Desquamation
  • Applications and measurement of transepidermal water loss
  • Guidance for TEWL measurements
  • Hydration measurement
  • Guidance for hydration measurements
  • Relationship between hydration and dermal toxicity
  • Colour measurement
  • Measurement of vascular perfusion
  • A final word of caution

Part III Clinical Aspects

13. Introduction to dermatology

  • Clinical assessment of patient with skin disease
  • Cutaneous manifestations of disease following exposure to chemicals and pharmaceutical formulations

14. Clinical aspects of phototoxicity

  • UV-induced skin reactions
  • Phototoxicity (photoirritancy) reactions
  • Photosensitive reactions
15. Occupational skin diseases

  • Dermatitis
  • Development of occupational dermatitis
  • Patterns of occupational dermatitis
  • Incidence of occupational dermatitis
  • Effects of dermatitis on work
  • The outlook in occupational dermatitis
  • Identification of occupational dermatitis
  • Other occupational skin disorders
  • Investigation of a case of dermatitis at work

16. Prevention of occupational skin disease

  • Prevention of occupational skin disease
  • Defining the problem
  • Material safety data sheets
  • Chain of responsibility
  • Managing dermal exposure
  • Selection and use of personal protective equipment
  • Protective or ‘barrier’ creams: do they have a role?
  • The role of education and training
Part IV Regulatory

17. Occupational skin exposures: legal aspects

  • Brief overview of current United Kingdom legislation
  • The employer’s perspective
  • Hazard identification
  • Risk assessment
  • Gloves: a note of caution

18. Safety assessment of cosmetics: an EU perspective

  • Overview and scope of Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EC
  • Overview of the requirements of the EU Cosmetics Directive
  • Scientific advice
  • Influence of other legislation
  • Adverse effects from cosmetics
  • Toxicity of cosmetic ingredients
  • The safety assessment
  • A final consideration
19. Regulatory dermatotoxicology and international guidelines

  • Regulatory context
  • Product groups and the human context
  • Dermal toxicology with the different product groups
  • Factors in dermal toxicity
  • Repeat dose dermal toxicology
  • Classic short-term dermal toxicity studies
  • Pragmatic considerations

20. Glossary of main terms and abbreviations


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Principles and Practice of Skin Toxicology
by Robert P. Chilicott
2008 • 392 pages • $153.95 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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