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Definitive Professional Book on Starches
from C.H.I.P.S.

Starch in Food
Structure, Function and Applications
edited by
Ann-Charlotte Eliasson

Starch is both a major component of plant foods and an important ingredient for the food industry.

Starch in Food reviews starch structure and functionality and the growing range of starch ingredients used to improve the nutritional and sensory quality of food.

Part 1 illustrates how plant starch can be analysed and modified, with chapters on plant starch synthesis, starch bioengineering and starch-acting enzymes.

Part 2 examines the sources of starch, from wheat and potato to rice, corn and tropical supplies.

Part 3 looks at starch as an ingredient and how it is used in the food industry. There are chapters on modified starches and the stability of frozen foods, starch-lipid interactions and starch-based microencapsulation.

Part 4 covers starch as a functional food, investigating the impact of starch on physical and mental performance, detecting nutritional starch fractions and analyzing starch digestion.

Contents

Part 1: Analysing and modifying starch

Chapter 1: Plant starch synthesis

  • Localisation and function of starch in plants
  • Starch synthesis: enzyme reactions in plants and algae and glycogen synthesis in cyanobacteria
  • Properties of plant glucan synthesizing enzymes: ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase
  • Properties of plant glucan synthesizing enzymes: starch synthase
  • Properties of plant glucan synthesizing enzymes: branching enzymes
  • Initiation of starch synthesis using a glucosyl-protein
  • Locating starch synthesis in plants: the plastid
  • In vivo synthesis of amylopectin
  • Regulating starch synthesis in plants

Chapter 2: Analysing starch structure

  • Characterising structures of starch granules
  • Fractionation of starch
  • Analysis of amylose
  • Analysis of amylopectin structure
  • Analysis of intermediate materials
  • Analysis of chemically modified starches

Chapter 3: Starch bioengineering

  • The importance of starch
  • Technologies for genetic modification and starch profiling
  • Improving starch yield and structure
  • Physical and chemical properties of modified starches
  • Functionality and uses of modified starches in food processing
  • Ensuring successful modification of starch

Chapter 4: Starch-acting enzymes

  • The importance of enzymes
  • Using enzymes to modify starch
  • Developing starch-modifying enzymes for food processing applications

Chapter 5: Understanding starch structure and functionality

  • Overview of packing at different length scales
  • The effect of amylopectin chain architecture on packing
  • Improving packing within starch granules
  • The gelatinisation process
  • Food processing: implications of starch granule structure

Chapter 6: Measuring starch in food

  • Sample preparation
  • Methods of analysing starch in food
  • Determining starch in food: recent technological developments

Part 2: Sources of starch

Chapter 7: The functionality of wheat starch

  • Manufacture of wheat starch for the food industry
  • Granular and molecular structure of wheat starch
  • Functionality of wheat starch: granules, films and pastes
  • Rheological properties of starch pastes and gels
  • Improving and chemically modifying wheat starch for use in the food industry
  • Wheat starch syrups
  • Analysing starch-based products

Chapter 8: Developments in potato starches

  • Components and rheological properties of potato starch
  • Techniques for producing potato starch
  • Improving the functionality of potato starch for use in the food industry

Chapter 9: The functionality of rice starch

  • Rice flour as a food ingredient
  • Constituents of rice starch
  • Structure and functionality of rice starch
  • Gelatinization and the structure of rice starch
  • Retrogradation and other properties of rice starch
  • Improving rice starch functionality for food processing applications

Chapter 10: New corn starches

  • The use of corn starch in food processing
  • Improving the functionality of corn starch for food processing applications: natural corn endosperm mutants
  • Chemically modifying corn starches for use in the food industry
  • Genetically modifying corn starches for use in the food industry

Chapter 11: Tropical sources of starch

  • Tropical sources of starch
  • Characteristics and properties of cassava starch
  • Characteristics and properties of sweet potato starch
  • Characteristics and properties of yam and aroid starches
  • Characteristics and properties of minor root starches
  • Modifying “tropical” starches for use in the food industry

Part 3: Applications

Chapter 12: Starch as an ingredient: manufacture and applications

  • Manufacture
  • Structure
  • Modifications
  • Technical data
  • Uses and applications
  • Regulatory status: European label declarations

Chapter 13: Utilising starches in product development

  • Components of starch
  • Characteristics of natural and modified starches
  • Methods of starch selection
  • Factors affecting starch in food products
  • Using the functional properties of starch to enhance food products

Chapter 14: Modified starches and the stability of frozen foods

  • The structure and stability of frozen foods
  • The role of modified starch in stabilising frozen foods

Chapter 15: Starch-lipid interactions and their relevance in food products

  • The structure and properties of the starch-lipid complex
  • Analysis of starch: lipids and emulsifiers
  • The effect of lipids on starch behaviour
  • Enzymatic degradation of amylase and aroma binding

Chapter 16: Starch-based microencapsulation

  • Using microencapsulation in food processing
  • Using starch in microencapsulation: starch hydrolysates, derivatives, polymers and granules
  • Starch-based shell matrices for food ingredients

Part 4: Starch and health

Chapter 17: Developing starch-based functional foods

  • The glycaemic index (GI)
  • Characteristics and properties of starch and starchy foods
  • Low GI diets and their associated health benefits
  • Case study: low GI, high slowly digestible starch plain biscuits, the EDP (long lasting energy) range developed by Danone Vitapole

Chapter 18: Starch, physical and mental performance

  • Physical performance: energy requirements, delivery and availability
  • Mental performance: the effects of glucose
  • Mental performance: the effects of CHO and glucose during the day

Chapter 19: Detecting nutritional starch fractions

  • Methods of determining RAG, SAG and RS fractions
  • Quality control and trouble shooting
  • Carbohydrate bioavailability data for selected foods

Chapter 20: Resistant starch

  • Effects of resistant starch on the digestive system
  • Improving the functional effects of resistant starch

Chapter 21: Clinical applications of slowly available starch

  • Starch and the prevention of hypo- and hyperglycaemia
  • The determinants of the rate of absorption of starch derived glucose
  • Techniques for monitoring starch digestion
  • Current applications of slowly available starch and the prevention of hyper- and hypoglycaemia

Index

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Starch in Food
Structure, Function and Applications
edited by Ann-Charlotte Eliasson

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