Chromatographic Reference Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography
Second edition
Theory and Practice
by Bruno Kolb
and Leslie S. Ettere

The only reference to provide both current and thorough coverage of this important analytical technique!

Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography: Theory and Practice has long been the only reference to provide in-depth coverage of this method of analysis. The Second Edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the most recent developments and practices, and also includes coverage of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and the purge-and-trap technique.

Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography: Theory and Practice covers:

  • Principles of static and dynamic headspace analysis, including the evolution of HS-GC methods and regulatory methods using static HS-GC
  • Basic theory of headspace analysis—physicochemical relationships, sensitivity, and the principles of multiple headspace extraction
  • HS-GC techniques—vials, cleaning, caps, sample volume, enrichment, and cryogenic techniques
  • Sample handling
  • Cryogenic HS-GC
  • Method development in HS-GC
  • Nonequilibrium static headspace analysis
  • Determination of physicochemical functions such as vapor pressures, activity coefficients, and more!

Comprehensive and focused, Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography, Second Edition provides an excellent resource to help the reader achieve optimal chromatographic results. Practical examples with original data help readers to master determinations in a wide variety of areas, such as forensic, environmental, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications.


General introduction

  • Principles of headspace analysis
  • Types of headspace analysis
  • The evolution of the HS-GC methods
  • Headspace -- gas chromatography literature
  • Regulatory methods utilizing (static) HS-GC

Theoretical background of HS-GC and its applications

  • Basic theory of headspace analysis
  • Basic physicochemical relationships
  • Headspace sensitivity
  • Headspace linearity
  • Duplicate analyses
  • Multiple headspace extraction (MHE)

The technique of HS-GC

  • Sample vials
  • Caps
  • Septa
  • Thermostatting
  • The fundamentals of headspace sampling systems
  • Use of open-tubular (capillary) columns
  • Enrichment techniques in HS-GC
  • Special techniques with the balanced-pressure systems
  • Reaction HS-GC

Sample handling in HS-GC

  • Equilibration
  • Solution approach
  • Sample handling and sample introduction
  • Preparation of standard solutions.
  • Influence of the matrix
  • Methods aiming the complete evaporation of the analyte

Headspace methods for quantitative analysis

  • Internal normalization
  • Internal standard method
  • External standard method
  • Standard addition method
  • Multiple headspace extraction (MHE)
  • Analysis of solid samples (adsorption systems)
  • Calibration techniques with headspace samples of varying volumes
  • Analysis of gas samples

Method development in HS-GC

  • General guidelines
  • Determination of the residual monomer content of polystyrene pellets
  • Determination of residual solvents in a printed plastic film
  • Determination of the volatile constituents of a cathodic electrolytic plating bath

Nonequilibrium static headspace analysis

Qualitative analysis by HS-GC

  • The use of HS-GC in ‘fingerprinting’
  • The use of headspace sampling in hyphenated systems
  • The use of HS-GC in microbiology

Special measurements

  • Determination of vapor pressures
  • Determination of activity coefficients
  • Determination of related physicochemical functions
  • Determination of phase distribution (partition coefficient)
  • Reaction constant measurements
  • Determination of solute solubility by MHE
  • Gas-solid systems
  • Validation of the headspace instrumentation: investigation of detector linearity and detection limit


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Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography:
Theory and Practice

Second Edition
by Bruno Kolb and Leslie S. Ettre

2006 • 349 pages • $125.00 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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