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Food Science and Technology Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Taints and
Off-Flavours
in Food

edited by Brian Baigrie


Taints and Off-Flavours in Food describes some of the most important causes of taints and off-flavours, how they can be identified and dealt with.

Taints and Off-Flavours in Food covers:

  • sensory and instrumental methods for detecting and analysing taints and off-flavours in food
  • packaging and residues from cleaning and disinfection
  • various causes of off-flavours, from those caused by microbial action and oxidation to those caused by the Maillard reaction and interactions between food components

Contents

Introduction

  • Defining off-flavours and taints
  • The structure of this book

Sensory analytical methods in detecting taints and off-flavours in food

  • Sensory test procedures
  • Types of test: difference/discrimination tests
  • Types of test: quantitative and hedonistic tests
  • Data handling, analysis and presentation
  • Choosing and interpreting sensory tests
  • Applications of sensory testing
  • Standardisation of test methods and instrumental methods
  • Ethical aspects

Instrumental methods in detecting taints and off-flavours

  • Liquid-based extraction techniques
  • Headspace extraction
  • Solid phase microextraction
  • Gas chromatography
  • Stir bar sorptive extraction
  • Electronic noses

Packaging materials as a source of taints

  • The main types of food packaging
  • Sources of taints
  • Chemicals responsible for taints
  • The main foodstuffs affected
  • Instrumental analysis of taints
  • Sample preparation techniques
  • Sampling strategy
  • Examples of taint investigations
  • Preventing taints
  • Developments in taint monitoring: electronic noses
  • Tracing the cause of a packaging taint
  • Future packaging trends affecting taints

Microbiologically-derived off-flavours

  • Bacteria
  • Aerobic bacteria
  • Facultative anaerobic bacteria
  • Anaerobic bacteria
  • Actinomycetes
  • Fungi

Oxidative rancidity as a source of off-flavours

  • Oxidation
  • Autoxidation
  • Photo-oxidation
  • Lipoxygenase (LOX)
  • Ketonic rancidity and metal-catalysed lipid oxidation
  • Off-flavours from volatile lipid molecules
  • Case study: lipid autoxidation and meat flavour deterioration
  • Case study: lipid oxidation in fish
  • Conclusions: preventing off-flavours

The Maillard reaction as a source of off-flavours

  • The mechanism of the Maillard reaction
  • Relevant Maillard reaction products (MRPs) in food flavour
  • Staling and off-flavours in particular foods

Off-flavours due to interactions between food components

  • Flavour compound volatility in different food matrices
  • Flavour retention in different food matrices
  • Off-flavours caused by reactions between food components in the food matrix
  • Bacterial interactions with the food matrix causing off-flavours
  • Bacterial interactions with additives causing off-flavours
  • Identifying and preventing off-flavours

Taints from cleaning and disinfecting agents

  • Cleaning and disinfecting agents
  • Testing the safety of cleaning and disinfecting agents
  • Testing cleaning and disinfecting agents for their capacity to cause taints
  • Detecting cleaning and disinfecting agents in rinse mater
  • Detecting cleaning and disinfecting agents in food
  • Measurement of chloroform

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Taints and Off-Flavours in Food
edited by Brian Baigrie
203 pages $238.95 + shipping

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