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Pathogens Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Understanding Pathogen Behaviour
Virulence, Stress Response and Resistance
edited by Mansel Griffiths

Features of Understanding Pathogen Behaviour:

  • Discusses fingerprinting, footprinting, bioinformatics, and the applications of understanding pathogen behaviour
  • Covers mathematical modelling of microbial population kinetics
  • Explores genetic exchange and the development of pathogenicity, host defense mechanisms, and pathogen survival strategies
  • Includes coverage of the consequences of stress response and resistance and microbial stress and cross-protection
  • Defines sublethal injury and discusses its impact on recovery of foodbourne pathogens, including the consequences or potential consequences on food safety
  • Provides an understanding of stresses encountered in animal hosts and microbial stress responses to food preservation regimes

A comprehensive resource covering the range of pathogen behaviour, Understanding Pathogen Behavior: Virulence, Stress Response And Resistance summarizes the wealth of recent research in this area and its implications in the food industry.

After introducing methods for analysing and modelling pathogens, the book reviews current research on what determines pathogenicity, stress response, adaptation, and resistance. It examines the behaviour of particular pathogens, reviewing virulence, stress response, and resistance mechanisms in such pathogens as Salmonella, E. coli, and Campylobactor.

The final part of the book assesses how pathogens react and adapt to particular stresses, from heat treatment and the effects of low temperature to the use of disinfectant and sanitisers. Most chapters include sections on future trends and sources of further information and advice.

CONTENTS

Part 1: Understanding Virulence, Stress Response and Resistance Mechanisms

Understanding the behaviour of pathogenic cells: proteome and metabolome analysis

  • Rationale behind analysing proteomes and metabolomes
  • Strategies for proteome analyses
  • Metabolome analyses
  • Proteomic and metabolomic fingerprinting and footprinting
  • Bioinformatics and in silico approaches
  • Applications in understanding pathogen behaviour

Mechanistic modelling of pathogen stress response

  • Mathematical modelling of microbial population kinetics
  • Primary models
  • Secondary modelling: growth rate modelling
  • Secondary modelling: lag time models
  • Validation and prediction of the bacterial growth
  • Modelling the effects of stress

The development of pathogenicity

  • Pathogenicity and virulence
  • Genetic exchange and the development of pathogenicity
  • The food processing environment and the evolution of pathogenicity
  • Predicting and controlling pathogenicity

Host–pathogen interactions

  • Host defense mechanisms and pathogen survival strategies
  • Pathogenic cell adhesion and invasion
  • Factors affecting virulence expression
  • Blocking infection

Factors affecting stress response

  • Heterogeneity in cellular response to stress
  • Cellular stage of growth and bacterial resistance
  • Response regulators
  • The role of free radicals in stress responses
  • Consequences of stress response and resistance

Cross-protective effects of bacterial stress

  • Microbial stress adaptation and cross-protection
  • Types of microbial stress adaptation
  • Regulation of cross-protective responses
  • Stresses that induce cross-protection
  • Detecting and quantifying cross-protection
  • Anticipating cross-protection
  • Preventing cross-protection

Sublethal injury, pathogen virulence and adaptation

  • Defining sublethal injury
  • Processing conditions producing sublethal injury
  • Impact of sublethal injury on recovery of foodborne pathogens
  • Consequences or potential consequences of sublethal injury on food safety
  • Injury and virulence
  • Designing preservation processes to prevent sublethal injury or maximize injury

Detecting sublethally-damaged cells

  • Resuscitation of injured cells
  • Detecting injury

Part 2: Virulence and Stress Response of Mechanisms of Particular Pathogens

Salmonella: virulence, stress response and resistance

  • Understanding the molecular basis of Salmonella virulence
  • The genetic regulation of Salmonella’s growth, survival and virulence
  • Salmonella’s resistance to particular types of stress

E. coli: virulence, stress response and resistance

  • Virulence mechanisms and pathotypes
  • Factors affecting virulence
  • Types of stress affecting pathogenic strains and response mechanisms
  • Improving risk assessment and control in food

Campylobacter: stress response and resistance

  • Campylobacters in the food supply
  • Stress responses in food and the environment
  • The pathogenesis of campylobacter infection

Bacillus cereus: factors affecting virulence

  • Taxonomy of Bacillus cereus
  • Virulence factors of Bacillus cereus
  • The spores of Bacillus cereus
  • Ecology and epidemiology of Bacillus cereus

Staphylococcus aureus: pathogenesis and stress response

  • Staphylococcal enterotoxins
  • Growth of S. aureus in the food environment
  • Food processing and preservation: what microbes encounter
  • The response of S. aureus to particular types of stress
  • Prevention of staphylococcal food poisoning

Vibrio species: pathogenesis and stress response

  • Quorum sensing in Vibrio species
  • Biofilm formation and surface adhesion
  • Stress response mechanisms
  • Risk assessment in food

Part 3: Pathogen Resistance and Adaptation to Particular Stresses

Understanding pathogen survival and resistance in the food chain

  • Stresses encountered in animal hosts
  • Food preservation strategies
  • Microbial stress responses to food preservation regimes
  • Genomics-based detection in the food chain

Pathogen resistance and adaptation to heat stress

  • Predicting pathogen resistance
  • Factors influencing the development of resistance
  • Targets of heat damage
  • Strategies to counter pathogen resistance

Pathogen resistance and adaptation to emerging technologies

  • Ionising irradiation
  • High pressure processing
  • High voltage pulsed electric fields

Pathogen resistance and adaptation to natural antimicrobials

  • Types of natural antimicrobials by source
  • Potential resistance responses by pathogens to natural antimicrobials
  • Factors influencing development of resistance
  • Predicting pathogen resistance
  • Strategies for overcoming resistance

Pathogen resistance and adaptation to disinfectants and sanitisers

  • Types of disinfectant and their mode of action
  • Strategies for optimising cleaning and disinfection
  • Types of pathogen response to disinfectants
  • Predicting microbial resistance to disinfectants

Pathogen resistance and adaptation to low temperature

  • Effect of temperature on microbial growth
  • Effect of low temperature on the structure, physiology and metabolism of bacterial cells
  • Pathogenicity in relation to low temperature

Part 4: Appendix

Clostridium

  • Taxonomy and properties of the Clostridium botulinum group
  • Characterisation and types of botulism
  • Epidemiology of foodborne botulism
  • Incidence of clostridium botulinum in the environment and in foods
  • Factors influencing growth, survival and neurotoxin formation.

Quorum sensing

  • Gram negative bacteria
  • The definition of a signal molecule
  • Quorum sensing in Gram negative foodborne pathogens
  • Other Gram negative bacteria of significance in food
  • Gram positive bacteria
  • L. monocytogenes
  • Alternative QS systems
  • Quorum sensing and host cells
  • Strategies to interfere with quorum sensing
  • Halogenated furanones
  • Quorum sensing and food microbiology

Index

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Understanding Pathogen Behaviour
Virulence, Stress Response and Resistance
edited by Mansel Griffiths

2005 • 611 pages • $308.95 + shipping
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