Engineering Book from C.H.I.P.S.

X-Ray Metrology in Semiconductor Manufacturing
by David K. Bowen

X-Ray Metrology in Semiconductor Manufacturing provides real solutions with a focus on accuracy, repeatability, and throughput.


  • Offers the first practical guide to x-ray metrology methods and applications
  • Reflects the knowledge of distinguished leaders in the field and the industrial experience of the world's leading semiconductor XRM company
  • Emphasizes practical metrology, focusing on real-world problems and solutions organized by application
  • Supplies an abundance of examples, illustrations, and references to more in-depth theoretical information
  • Includes summaries of fundamentals and key concepts for each method placed in "grey boxes" throughout the book


The Applications

  • Scope of X-Ray Metrology (XRM)
  • Specular X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR)
  • Diffuse Scatter
  • X-Ray Diffraction
  • High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction
  • Diffraction Imaging and Defect Mapping
  • X-Ray Fluorescence
  • Thickness Metrology
  • Dielectrics and Metals
  • Multiple Layers
  • Epitaxial Layers
  • Composition and Phase Metrology
  • Amorphous Films
  • Polycrystalline Films
  • Wafers and Epitaxial Films
  • Strain and Stress Metrology
  • Strain and Stress in Polycrystalline Layers
  • Relaxation of Epitaxial Layers
  • Thin Strained Silicon Layers
  • Whole Wafer Defect Metrology
  • Mosaic Metrology
  • Grain Size Measurement
  • Mosaic Structure in Substrate Wafers
  • Mosaic Structure in Epilayers
  • Interface Roughness Metrology
  • Interface Width and Roughness
  • Distinction of Roughness and Grading
  • Roughness Determination in Semiconductors
  • Roughness Determination in Metallic Films
  • Roughness Determination in Dielectrics
  • Porosity Metrology
  • Determination of Porosity
  • Determination of Pore Size and Distribution
  • Pores in Single Crystals

The Science

  • Specular X-Ray Reflectivity
  • Specular Reflectivity from a Single Ideal Interface
  • Specular Reflectivity from a Single Graded or Rough Interface
  • Specular Reflectivity from a Single Thin Film on a Substrate
  • Specular Reflectivity from Multiple Layers on a Substrate
  • X-Ray Diffuse Scattering
  • Origin of Diffuse Scatter from Surfaces and Interfaces
  • The Born Approximation
  • The Distorted-Wave Born Approximation
  • Effect of Interface Parameters on Diffuse Scatter
  • Multiple-Layer Structures
  • Diffuse Scatter Represented in Reciprocal Space
  • Theory of XRD on Polycrystals
  • Kinematical Theory of X-Ray Diffraction
  • Determination of Strain
  • Determination of Grain Size
  • Texture
  • Reciprocal Space Geometry
  • High-Resolution XRD on Single Crystals
  • Dynamical Theory of X-Ray Diffraction
  • The Determination of Epilayer Parameters
  • High-Resolution Diffraction in Real and Reciprocal Space
  • Diffraction Imaging and Defect Mapping
  • Contrast in X-Ray Diffraction Imaging (XRDI)
  • Spatial Resolution in XRDI
  • X-Ray Defect Imaging Methods
  • Example Applications

The Technology

  • Modeling and Analysis
  • What Has Been Measured?
  • Direct Methods
  • Data-Fitting Methods
  • The Differential Evolution Method
  • Requirements for Automated Analysis
  • Instrumentation
  • X-Ray Sources
  • X-Ray Optics
  • Mechanical Technology
  • Detectors
  • Practical Realizations
  • Accuracy and Precision of X-Ray Metrology
  • Design of X-Ray Metrology
  • Repeatability and Reproducibility
  • Accuracy and Trueness
  • Repeatability and Throughput
  • Absolute Tool Matching
  • Specimen-Induced Limitations


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X-Ray Metrology in Semiconductor Manufacturing
by David K. Bowen
2006 • 296 pages • $138.95 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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