Professional Book for Bakery Technology
from C.H.I.P.S.

Bakery Food Manufacture and Quality
Water Control and Effects
Second edition
by Stanley Cauvain
Linda Young

Bakery Food Manufacture and Quality: Water Control and Effects, 2nd edition describes in detail the role and control of water in the formation of cake batters, bread, pastry and biscuit doughs, their subsequent processing and the baked product.

Now in a fully revised and updated second edition, the book has been expanded and developed through the inclusion of new information and references related to the formation and processing of batters and dough into baked products.

The new edition includes a selection of case studies based on practical experience in the manufacture and optimisation of baked products. Each case study, illustrated as appropriate, considers the various roles that water may play in different manufacturing contexts.


Water and its roles in baked products

  • The composition and heat-related properties of water
  • Vapor pressure and relative humidity
  • Water hardness
  • Ionization and solutions
  • The solubility of solids and their recrystallization
  • Water of crystallization
  • Vapor pressure of solutions
  • Osmotic pressure
  • Gases in solution
  • Suspensions
  • Colloidal suspensions
  • Hydration
  • Water as a plasticizer
  • Surface tension and capillary action
  • Gels and emulsions
  • Water in bakery ingredients
  • Using water as a processing tool
  • Assessing water in baked products

The role of water in the formation and processing of bread doughs

  • Wheat flour properties
  • The formation of bread doughs
  • Optimum dough water levels
  • Wheat flour water absorption capacity and its determination
  • Water levels in rye bread doughs
  • Pre-hydration of flour, wheat and other grains in the manufacture of bread and sponges
  • Water and dough development
  • The effects of other dough ingredients on water levels in bread doughs
  • Other factors affecting the level of water added to doughs
  • Dough and water temperatures
  • Water, dough rheology and moulding

The role of water in the formation and processing of batters, biscuit and cookie doughs, and pastes

  • The formation of cake batters
  • Dissolution and hydration of ingredients in cake batters
  • Water levels in cake batters
  • Water-containing ingredients and their contribution to cake batters
  • Flour properties and water levels in cake batters
  • Gases in cake batters
  • Wafer and other batters
  • Control of batter temperatures
  • Batter viscosity and its measurement
  • Formation and processing of biscuit and cookie doughs
  • Formation and processing of short pastry doughs.
  • Formation and processing of laminated doughs
  • The impact of ingredients on the water level in the formation of biscuit and c9ookie doughs and pastes
  • Biscuit dough and paste rheological properties
  • Choux pastries
  • Bakery products not based on flour

The contribution of water during processing, baking, cooling and freezing

  • Water in retarded unbaked doughs
  • The influence of moisture on white spot formation during the retarding of fermented doughs
  • The importance of relative humidity during proof of fermented doughs
  • The contribution of water (steam) to expansion and product structure during baking
  • Applications of steam during baking
  • Surface treatments with water and water-based solutions
  • Water and microwave baking
  • The management of water losses during baking and cooling
  • Water in frozen bakery products

Effects of water on product textural properties and their changes during storage

  • The contribution of product moisture content to baked product character
  • Loss of product freshness (staling)
  • Effects of freezing and thawing on product texture and eating quality
  • The impact of packaging on texture

Water activity

  • Sources of moisture in bakery products
  • Product moisture content
  • The importance of water activity
  • The link between moisture content and water activity
  • Definitions of water activity and equilibrium relative humidity
  • Water activity and microbial spoilate
  • Water activity and the mould-free shelf-life of a product
  • Effects of packaging
  • Water activity and product rancidity
  • The influence of ingredients on water activity
  • Sucrose equivalence

Moisture migration and its control in composite products

  • Mechanisms of moisture migration
  • Fruited cakes and breads
  • Cream cakes
  • Sugar-based toppings
  • Savory pastry products
  • Sweetened pastry products
  • Using stabilizers to control moisture migration
  • Moisture migration in composity biscuit products
  • The application of moisture barriers
  • Use of packaging materials
  • Moisture migration and product shelf-life

Methods of determining moisture content and water availability

  • Determination of product moisture content and water activity
  • Measuring moisture content
  • Oven drying methods
  • Electrical methods
  • Summary of instrument types used for moisture measurement
  • Methods for the calculation of moisture content
  • Methods for the measurement of water activity
  • Preparing samples for ERH measurement
  • Instrumental measurement of ERH
  • Methods of calculating water activity and ERH
  • Other methods for calculating water activity
  • Software to calculate water activity

Strategies for extending product shelf life

  • Manipulating water activity using ingredients
  • Storage temperature
  • Effects of pH
  • Extending the product shelf-life by adjusting water content
  • Changing salt levels
  • Effects of sugars on the cake shelf-life
  • Using humectants
  • Summary of the effects of recipe changes to the cake shelf-life
  • Using preservatives
  • Reducing moisture migration
  • Extending shelf-life by other means


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Bakery Food Manufacture and Quality
Water Control and Effects
Second edition
by Stanley Cauvain
Linda Young
2008 • 289 pages • $208.95 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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