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Basics of Biomedical Ultrasound for Engineers
by Haim Azhari

Basics of Biomedical Ultrasound for Engineers begins with the most basic definitions of waves, proceeds to ultrasound in fluids and solids, explains the principles of wave attenuation and reflection, then introduces to the reader the principles of focusing devices, ultrasonic transducers, and acoustic fields, and then delves into integrative applications of ultrasound in conventional and advanced medical imaging techniques and therapeutic ultrasound.

Topics covered include:

  • Encompasses a wide range of topics within biomedical ultrasound, from attenuation and reflection of waves to the intricacies of focusing devices, transducers, acoustic fields, modern medical imaging techniques, and therapeutics
  • Explains the most common applications of biomedical ultrasound from an engineering point of view
  • Provides need-to-know information in the form of physical and mathematical principles directed at concrete applications
  • Fills in holes in knowledge caused by ever-increasing new applications of ultrasonic imaging and therapy



  • Prelude and Basic Definitions
  • The Advantages of Using Ultrasound in Medicine
  • A General Statement on Safety
  • Some Common Applications of Ultrasound
  • What Is It that We Need to Know

Part 1: Waves-A General Description

  • General Defi nitions of Waves—A Qualitative Description
  • General Properties of Waves—A Qualitative Description
  • Mechanical One-Dimensional Waves
  • The Wave Function
  • The Wave Equation
  • Harmonic Waves
  • Equivalent Presentations
  • Group Waves
  • Wave Velocity
  • Standing Waves
  • Spherical Waves
  • Cylindrical Waves
  • The Wave Equation in a Nonhomogeneous Medium

Part 2: Waves in a One-Dimensional Medium

  • The Propagation Speed of Transverse Waves in a String
  • Vibration Frequencies for a Bounded String
  • Wave Refl ection (Echo) in a One-Dimensional Medium
  • Special Cases
  • Wave Energy in Strings
  • Propagation of Longitudinal Waves in an Isotropic Rod or String
  • A Clinical Application of Longitudinal Waves in a String

Part 3: Ultrasonic Waves In Fluids

  • Waves in Fluids
  • Compressibility
  • Longitudinal Waves in Fluids
  • The Wave Energy
  • Intensity
  • Radiation Pressure
  • A Perfect Reflector

Part 4: Propagation of Acoustic Waves in Solid Materials

  • Introduction to the Mechanics of Solids
  • The Elastic Strain
  • Stress
  • Hooke’s Law and Elastic Coefficients
  • The Wave Equation for an Elastic Solid Material
  • Propagation of a Harmonic Planar Wave in a Solid Materialf

Part 5: Attenuation and Dispersion

  • The Attenuation Phenomenon
  • Explaining Attenuation with a Simple Model
  • Attenuation Dependency on Frequency
  • The Complex Wave Number
  • Speed of Sound Dispersion
  • The Nonlinear Parameter B/A

Part 6: Reflection and Transmission

  • The Acoustic Impedance
  • Snell’s Law
  • Refl ection and Transmission from Boundaries Separating Two Fluids
  • Refl ection from a Free Surface in Solids
  • Refl ection and Transmission from a Liquid– Solid Boundary

Part 7: Acoustic Lenses and Mirrors

  • Optics
  • Optics and Acoustics
  • An Ellipsoidal Lens
  • Spherical Lenses
  • Zone Lenses
  • Acoustic Mirrors

Part 8: Transducers and Acoustic Fields

  • Piezoelectric Transducers
  • The Acoustic Field
  • The Field of a Point Source
  • The Field of a Disc Source
  • The Field of Various Transducers
  • Phased-Array Transducers
  • Annular Phased Arrays

Part 9: Ultrasonic Imaging Using The Pulse-Echo Technique

  • Basic Defi nitions in Imaging.
  • The “A-Line”
  • Scatter Model for Soft Tissues
  • Time Gain Compensation
  • Basic Pulse-Echo Imaging
  • Advanced Methods for Pulse-Echo Imaging

Part 10: Special Imaging Techniquies

  • Acoustic Impedance Imaging—Impediography
  • Elastography
  • Tissue Speckle Tracking
  • Through-Transmission Imaging
  • Vibro-acoustic Imaging
  • Time Reversal
  • Ultrasonic Computed Tomography
  • Contrast Materials
  • Coded Excitations

Part 11: Doppler Imaging Techniques

  • The Doppler Effect
  • Velocity Estimation
  • Frequency Shift Estimation
  • Duplex Imaging

Part 12: Safety and Therapeutic Applications

  • Effects Induced by Ultrasound and Safety
  • Ultrasonic Physiotherapy
  • Lithotripsy
  • Hyperthermia HIFU and Ablation
  • Drug Delivery
  • Gene Therapy
  • Cosmetic Applications


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Basics of Biomedical Ultrasound for Engineers
by Haim Azhari
2010 • 371 pages • $109.00 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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