Biofilms in Food and Beverage Industry
Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Biofilms in the Food and Beverage Industries
edited by Pina M. Fratamico

When bacteria attach to and colonize the surfaces of food processing equipment and foods products themselves, there is a risk that biofilms may form. Human pathogens in biofilms can be harder to remove than free microorganisms and may therefore pose a more significant food safety risk. Biofilms in the Food and Beverage Industries addresses the formation of biofilms in these sectors and best practices for their control.


  • considers fundamental aspects concerning the ecology and characteristics of biofilms and considers methods for their detection
  • examines biofilm formation by different micro-organisms such as samonella and food spoilage
  • discusses specific issues related to biofilm prevention and removal, such as cleaning and sanitation of food contact surfaces and food processing equipment
  • focuses on particular industry sectors including dairy, red meat processing and fresh produce

Part One considers fundamental aspects such as molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation by food-associated bacteria and methods for biofilm imaging, quantification and monitoring.

Part Two reviews biofilm formation by different microorganisms.

Part Three Part three focus on significant issues related to biofilm prevention and removal.

Part Four contains contributions on biofilms in particular food industry sectors, such as dairy and red meat processing and fresh produce.

With its distinguished editors and international team of contributors, Biofilms in the food and beverage industries is a highly beneficial reference for microbiologists and those in industry responsible for food safety.


Part 1: Biofilms in the Food and Beverage Industries

Biofilms in the food and beverage industries: an introduction

  • Biofilm formation
  • Stages involved during attachment
  • Formation of three-dimensional structures
  • Microcolony formation
  • Biofilm maturation
  • Detachment and dispersal of cells from biofilms
  • Heterogeneity of biofilm matrix and structures involved in biofilm formation
  • Regulations of biofilm formation
  • Biofilm physiology
  • Microbial extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) and heir role in bifilms
  • Biofilm applications and problems

Molecular mechanisms involved in biofilm formation by food-associated bacteria

  • Overview of biofilm formation and quorum sensing
  • Biofilm formation and quorum sensing in bacteria
  • Inactivation of quorum sensing molecules and inhibition of quorum sensing
  • Genetic transfer in biofilms
  • Genomics and proteomics of biofilm formation

Methods for imaging and quantifying the structure of biofilms in food processing and other environments

  • Microscopy techniques useful in biofilm studies
  • Enhancing the images of microorganisms in biofilms
  • Staining biofilm components
  • Quantifying biofilm structure

Monitoring of biofilms in the food and beverage industries

  • Monitoring approach as a strategic anti-fouling methodology
  • Requirements for a suitable monitoring device
  • Biofouling monitoring techniques

A centralized database for use in studying bacterial biofilms and quorum sensing in food processing and other environments: MicroBQs

  • Goal of MicroBQs
  • Data presentation and source of information for MicroBQs
  • Database contents
  • Web interface

Part 2: Microorganisms and Their Metabolites in Biofilms

Biofilm formation by food spoilage microorganisms in food processing environments

  • Important physiological and molecular events in biofilm formation
  • Organisms involved in food industry biofilms
  • Control of microbial biofilms
  • Biofilm problem areas in processing facilities
  • Practical considerations for biofilm control

Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes and transfer to foods

  • Physiology of bacteria growing in biofilms
  • Biofilm formation and propagation
  • Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes
  • Influence of lineages on biofilm formation
  • L. monocytogenes biofilms and exopolymeric substances (EPS)

Biofilm formation by Salmonella in food processing environments

  • Salmonellosis, one of the most prevalent food-borne diseases
  • Salmonella attachment, biofilm formation and molecular mechanisms involved
  • Resistance of Salmonella biofilms to sanitizers

Biofilm formation by Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium avium and Enterococcus spp. in food processing environments

  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Coagulase-negative staphylococci
  • Mycobacterium avium
  • Enterococcus spp

Biofilm formation by spore-forming bacteria in food processing environments

  • Mesophilic endospore formers, such as Bacillus (B.) species
  • Biofilm formation
  • Thermophilic endospore formers, such as Anoxybacillus flavithermus
  • Biofilm formation

Part 3: Biofilm Prevention, Inactivation and Removal

Food contact surfaces, surface soiling and biofilm formation

  • Range of surfaces encountered in food processing
  • Regulation, standards and other requirements regarding food contact surfaces for food industries
  • Material conditioning and ageing
  • Surface properties and microbial attachment
  • Impact of material conditioning and ageing on microbial attachment to surfaces
  • Surface properties and microbial persistence
  • Impact of material conditioning and ageing on microbial persistence; implications for food safety

Cleaning and sanitation in food processing environments for the prevention of biofilm formation and biofilm removal

  • The cleaning process
  • The impact of cleaning on biofilms
  • Use of biocides

Novel methods for biofilm control and removal from food processing equipment

  • Power ultrasound
  • The removal mechanism
  • The effect of power intensity
  • The effect of frequency
  • The synergy with other stressors
  • Other methods
  • Pulsed electric fields
  • Low electric fields (Ohmic heating)

Part 4: Biofilms in Particular Food Industry Sectors

Biofilms in red meat processing

  • Sources of contamination
  • Microbial load of solid surfaces after cleaning and disinfection
  • Micro-organisms involved
  • Possible explanations of the presence of a bacterial species after cleaning and disinfection
  • Implications for food suitability and safety
  • Prevention of biofilm formation
  • Biofilm inactivation and removal

Biofilms in dairy processing

  • The microbiological flora associated with milk and dairy manufacturing
  • Microorganisms in milk
  • Biofilms in the dairy industry
  • Factors affecting biofilm formation
  • Biofilm implications for process efficiency
  • Products
  • Control of biofilms in dairy manufacturing plants
  • Future trends for biofilm control in dairy manufacturing plants (DMP)

Biofilms and brewing

  • Biofilms in beer production and dispensing
  • Prevention of biofilm formation in breweries and in beer dispensing

Biofilms in poultry processing

  • Biofilm formation in poultry processing
  • Biofilm inactivation and removal
  • Prevention of biofilm formation

Beneficial biofilms: wastewater and other industrial applications

  • Various types of biofilms
  • Factors enhancing biofilm formation
  • Biofilm reactors
  • Biofilms in biological wastewater treatment
  • Biofilms employed to treat dairy industry wastewater
  • Biofilms employed to treat oily sea water
  • Biofilms for production of industrial chemicals
  • Length of operation of biofilm reactors
  • Industrial/pilot-plant level biofilm reactors

Biofilms in fish processing

  • The water environment
  • Microorganisms of concern in biofilm formation
  • Control or removal of biofilms during seafood processing

Biofilms in fresh fruit and vegetables

  • Several pathogens of concern in produce
  • Biofilms on produce
  • Control of biofilms on produce and research needs

Part 5: Appendix

Sampling and quantification of biofilms in food processing and other environments

  • Sampling surfaces
  • Quantitative detection technologies for sampling


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Biofilms in the Food and Beverage Industries
edited by Pina M. Fratamico
2009 580 pages $248.95 + shipping
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