Brewing Technology Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Brewing Science and Practice
by Dennis E. Briggs

Brewing: Science and Practice consolidates and revises the previous work of this author team, producing what will be the standard work in its field.

Brewing Science and Practice covers all stages of brewing from raw materials, including the chemistry of hops and the biology of yeasts, through individual processes such as mashing and wort separation to packaging, storage and distribution.

Brewing Science and Practice also covers key quality issues such as flavor and the chemical and physical properties of finished beers.


An outline of brewing

  • Malts
  • Mash tun adjuncts
  • Brewing liquor
  • Milling and mashing in
  • Mashing and wort separation systems
  • The hop boil and copper adjuncts
  • Wort clarification, cooling and aeration
  • Fermentation
  • The processing of beer
  • Types of beer
  • Analytical systems
  • The economics of brewing
  • Excise

Malts, adjuncts and supplementary enzymes

  • Grists and other sources of extract
  • Malting in outline, changes occurring in malting grain, malting technology, malt analyses, types of kilned malt, special malts, malt specifications
  • Adjuncts; mash tun adjuncts, copper adjuncts
  • priming sugars, caramels, malt colourants and “farbebier”
  • Supplementary enzymes

Water, effluents and wastes

  • Sources of water
  • Preliminary water treatments
  • Secondary water treatments
  • Grades of water used in breweries
  • The effects on ions on the brewing process
  • Brewery effluents, wastes and by-products, The characterization of waste water, the characterization of waste water, the characteristics of some brewery wastes and by-products
  • The disposal of brewery effluents; preliminary treatments, aerobic treatments of brewery effluents, sludge treatments and disposal, anaerobic and mixed treatments of brewery effluents
  • Other water treatments

The science of mashing

  • Mashing schedules
  • Altering mashing conditions; the grist, malts in mashing, mashing with adjuncts, mashing temperatures and wort quality, non-malt enzymes in mashing, mashing liquor and mash ph, mash thickness, extract yield and wort quality, wort
  • separation and sparging
  • Mashing biochemistry; wort carbohydrates, starch degradation in mashing, non-starch polysaccharides in mashing, proteins, peptides and amino acids, nucleic acids and related substances, miscellaneous substances containing nitrogen,
  • vitamins and yeast growth factors, lipid in mashing, phenols, miscellaneous acids, inorganic ions in sweet
  • Mashing and beer flavour
  • Spent grains

The preparation of grists

  • Intake, handling and storage of raw materials
  • The principles of milling
  • Laboratory mills
  • Dry roller milling
  • Impact mills
  • Conditioned dry milling
  • Spray steep roller milling
  • Spray conditioning
  • Milling under water
  • Grist cases

Mashing technology

  • Mashing in
  • The mash tun; construction, mash tun operations
  • Mashing vessels for decoction, double mashing and temperature programmed mashing systems; decoction and double mashing, temperature programmed infusion mashing
  • Lauter tuns
  • The strainmaster
  • Mash filters
  • The choice of mashing and wort separation systems
  • Other methods of wort separation and mashing
  • Spent grains
  • Theory of wort separation


  • Botany
  • Cultivation
  • Drying
  • Hop Products; hop pellets, hop extracts, hop oils
  • Pests and diseases; damson-hop aphid,(red) spider mite, other pests, downy mildew, powdery mildew, verticillium wilt, virus diseases
  • Hop varieties

The chemistry of hop constituents

  • Hop resins; introduction, biosynthesis of the hop resins, analysis of the hop resins, Isomerization of the ƒÑ-acids, hard resins and prenylflavonoids, oxidation of the hop resins
  • Hop oil; introduction, hydrocarbons, oxygen-containing compounds, sulphur-containing compounds, most potent odourants, hop oil constituents in beer, post fermentation aroma products
  • Hop Polyphenols (tannins)
  • Chemical Identification of hop cultivars

Chemistry of wort boiling

  • Carbohydrates
  • Nitrogenous constituents; introduction, Proteins
  • Carbohydrate-nitrogenous constituent interactions; melanoidins, caramel
  • Protein-polyphenol (tannin) interactions
  • Copper finings and trub formation

Wort boiling, clarification, cooling and aeration

  • The principles of heating wort
  • Types of coppers
  • The addition of hops
  • Pressurized hop boiling systems; low pressure boiling, dynamic low pressure boiling, Continuous high pressure boiling
  • The control of volatile substances in wort
  • Energy conservation and the hop boil
  • Hot wort clarification
  • Wort cooling
  • The cold break
  • Wort aeration/oxygenation

Yeast biology

  • Historical note
  • Taxonomy
  • Yeast ecology
  • Cellular composition
  • Yeast morphology
  • Yeast cytology; cell wall; flocculation, the periplasm, the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, vacuoles and intracellular membrane systems, mitochondria, the nucleus
  • Yeast cell cycle; yeast sexual cycle
  • Yeast genetics; methods of genetic analysis, yeast genome
  • Strain improvement

Yeast metabolism of wort by yeast

  • Yeast metabolism - an overview
  • Yeast nutrition; water relations, sources of carbon, sources of nitrogen, sources of minerals, growth factors
  • Nutrient uptake; sugar uptake, uptake of nitrogenous nutrients, uptake of lipids, ion uptake, transport of the products of fermentation
  • Sugar metabolism; glycolysis, hexose monophosphate pathway, tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transport and oxidative phosporylation, fermentative sugar catabolism, gluconeogenesis and the glyoxylate cycle, storage carbohydrates
  • regulation of sugar metabolism, ethanol toxicity and tolerance
  • The role of oxygen
  • Lipid metabolism; fatty acid metabolism, phospholipids, sterols
  • Nitrogen metabolism
  • Yeast stress response
  • Minor products of metabolism contributing to beer flavour; organic and fatty acids, carbonyl compounds, higher alcohols, esters, sulphur-containing compounds

Yeast growth

  • Measurement of yeast biomass
  • Batch culture, brewery batch cultures, effect of process variables on fermentation performance
  • Yeast ageing
  • Yeast propagation; maintenance and supply of yeast cultures, laboratory yeast propagation, brewery propagation
  • Fed-batch cultures
  • Continuous culture
  • Immobilised yeast
  • Growth on solid media
  • Yeast identification; microbiological tests, biochemical tests, tests based on cell surface properties, non-traditional methods
  • Measurement of viability
  • Assessment of yeast physiological state

Fermentation technologies

  • Basic principles of fermentation technology; fermentability of wort, time course of fermentation, heat output in fermentation
  • Bottom fermentation systems; choice, size and shape of vessels, construction of cylindro-conical vessels; metals and design, cooling jackets, vessel fittings, insulation
  • Operation of cylindro-conical vessels, addition of yeast (pitching), temperature control, cleaning of vessels
  • Top fermentation systems; traditional top fermentation systems; vessels and rooms, operation
  • Yorkshire square fermentation; vessels, operation, new developments
  • Burton Union fermentation
  • Continuous fermentation; early systems of continuous fermentation; stirred tank fermenters, tower fermenters
  • The New Zealand system, continuous primary fermentation with immobilised yeast; technology, operation, future
  • Fermentation control systems; specific gravity changes, other methods

Beer maturation and treatments

  • Maturation-flavour and aroma change; principles of secondary fermentation, important flavour changes; diketones, sulphur compounds, aldehydes, volatile fatty acids
  • Techniques of maturation; lager methods, ale methods, oxygen control
  • Flavour, aroma and colour adjustments by addition; colour, flavour, aroma, blending, water
  • Maturation vessels; material of construction, cooling, cleaning-in-place (CIP)
  • Stabilization against non-biological haze; mechanisms for haze formation
  • Removal of protein; hydrolysis, precipitation, adsorption
  • Removal of polyphenol; adsorption, proanthocyanidin-free malt>
  • Combined treatments to remove protein and polyphenol
  • Hazes from other than protein or polyphenol
  • Carbonation; carbon dioxide saturation, artificial carbonation, carbon dioxide recovery
  • Clarification and filtration; removal of yeast and beer recovery; sedimentation and fining, centrifugation, filtration. Beer filtration; sheet filtration, powder filtration
  • Special beer treatments; low alcohol and alcohol free beers; vacuum distillation, vacuum evaporation, dialysis, reverse osmosis, control of mashing, control of fermentation, use of spent grains
  • Ice beers, diet beers

Native African beers

  • An outline of the stages of production, bouza, merissa, busaa some other beers, southern African beers
  • Malting sorghum & millets
  • Brewing African beers on the industrial scale
  • Attempts to obtain stable African beers
  • Beer composition and its nutritional value


  • The microbiological threat to the brewing process
  • Beer spoilage microorganisms; detection of brewery microbial contaminants, identification of brewery bacteria, gram negative beer spoiling bacteria, gram positive beer spoiling bacteria, beer spoilage yeast, microbiological media and the cultivation of microorganisms
  • Microbiological quality assurance
  • Sampling; sampling devices
  • Disinfection of pitching yeast
  • Cleaning in the brewery; range of cleaning operations, CIP systems, cleaning agents, cleaning beer dispense lines, validation of CIP

Brewhouses: types, control and economy

  • History of brewhouse development; the tower brewery lay-out, the horizontal brewery lay-out
  • Types of modern brewhouse; experimental brewhouses, micro and pub breweries
  • Control of brewhouse operations; automation in the brewhouse; sensors, programmable logic controllers (PLCs), supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems
  • Scheduling of brewhouse operations
  • Economic aspects of brewhouses

Chemical and physical properties of beer

  • Chemical composition of beer; inorganic constituents, alcohol and original extract, carbohydrates, other constituents containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; non-volatile, volatile, other constituents containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; non-volatile, Volatile
  • Nitrogenous constituents; non-volatile and volatile
  • Sulphur-containing constituents
  • Nutritive value of beer
  • Colour of beer
  • Haze; measurement of haze, composition and formation of haze, prediction of haze and beer stability, practical methods for improving beer stability
  • Viscosity
  • Foam characteristics and head retention; methods of assessing foam characteristics, beer components influencing head retention, head retention and the brewing process
  • Gushing

Beer flavour and sensory assessment

  • Flavour – taste and odour
  • Flavour stability
  • Sensory analysis


  • General overview of packaging operations
  • Bottling; managing the bottle flow; depalletising and palletising, de-crating and crating, secondary packaging, washing, rinsing, empty bottle inspection, full bottle inspection, labelling
  • Sterile filtration, standard filling, aseptic filling, crowning, tunnel pasteurisation
  • Managing plant cleaning
  • Materials for making bottles
  • Canning; the beer can, preparing cans at the brewery for filling, can filling, can closing (seaming), widgets in cans
  • Kegging; the keg, treatment of beer for kegging; flash pasteurisation, handling of kegs, keg internal cleaning and filling, keg capping and labelling, smooth flow ale in kegs
  • Cask beer; the cask, handling casks, preparing beer for cask filling, cask filling

Storage and distribution

  • Warehousing; principles of warehouse operation; stock control, storage conditions, record keeping
  • Safety in the warehouse
  • Distribution; logistics; planning, delivery, quality assurance

Beer in the trade

  • History
  • Beer cellars; hygiene, temperature, lighting
  • Beer dispense; keg beer; carbon dioxide, mixed gases, beer pumps, beer lines
  • Cask beer; delivery of beer, stillaging, pegging (spiling), tapping, tilting, dispense, hygiene, empty casks, throughput
  • Bottled and canned beer
  • Quality control
  • New developments in trade quality



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Brewing Science and Practice
by Dennis E. Briggs
2004 • 881 pages • $358.95 + shipping
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