Bubble Mechanics book from C.H.I.P.S.

Bubbles in Food
edited by Grant M. Campbell

The challenges of using bubbles in food products are threefold and common across all food groups:

  • How can they be measured?
  • How do they behave in specific products?
  • How can they be used commercially for maximum benefit and profitability?
Bubbles in Food brings clarity to these challenges by synthesizing the most current research on the issues inherent in them, including bubble size distributions, air contents, surface chemistry, rheology, diffusion, process dynamics, and marketing and consumer preference.

Discussion focuses on four general issues: bubble entrainment and generation; bubble growth and foam stability, bubble measurement and control, and bubbles for sensory and marketing advantage.

Bubbles in Food groups papers by theme, rather than food group, to ensure seamless coverage.

A comprehensive index allows readers to locate specific foods or issues of interest to them.

Bubbles in Food provides an overview of current food aeration knowledge and research, as well as practical, food-group specific advice.

Coverage includes techniques for measuring bubble size distributions, air contents, rheology, foamability and foam stability; mathematical models for prediction of bubble size, air entrainment and bubble growth; effects of emulsifiers, proteins, lipids, sugars and ethanol; and effects of mixing conditions and processing factors.


  1. Bubble Entrainment and Generation
    1. An introduction to bubble mechanics in foods
    2. Entrainment and disentrainment of air during bread dough mixing, and their effect on scale-up of dough mixers
    3. The effect of fermentation on bubble formation and structural properties of an extruded cereal product
    4. Evolution of CO2 bubbles during brewery fermentation
    5. Foaming of ice cream and the time stability of its bubble size distribution
    6. Vapour-induced puffing as an intermediate step in the dehydration of vegetables
    7. Foam generation in a continuous rotor-stator mixer
    8. Combined effects of substrate and process parameters in food foaming processes

  2. Bubble Growth and Foam Stability
    1. The evolution of bubble structure in bread doughs and its effect on bread structure
    2. The role of wheat proteins and polar lipids in the stabilisation of the foam structure of dough
    3. Modeling bubble growth during proving of bread dough: Predicting the output from the Chopin Rheofermentometer
    4. Simulation of bubble growth in heat processed cereal systems
    5. Prediction of dough volume development which considers the biaxial extensional growth of cells
    6. Physical factors determining gas cell stability in a dough during bread making
    7. Keeping a head: Optimising beer foam performance
    8. Enhancement of bubble surface elasticity by crosslinking agents and their effects on protein foam stability
    9. Foaming and thin film behaviour of commercial caseinate: The effect of lipid content and temperature
    10. Effects of sugars on the foaming of native and dried proteins

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Bubbles in Food
edited by Grant M. Campbell

348 pages $118.00 + shipping
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