Carbohydrate Chemistry Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Carbohydrate Chemistry
for Food Scientists

Second edition
by James N. BeMiller

Carbohydrate Chemistry for Food Scientists, Second edition is a complete update of the critically acclaimed first edition of Whistler and BeMiller’s authoritative carbohydrate reference for food scientists.

Carbohydrate Chemistry for Food Scientists, Second edition provides practical information on:

  • the specific uses of carbohydrates
  • functionalities delivered by specific carbohydrates
  • the process for choosing carbohydrate ingredients for specific product applications

Readers learn basic and specific applications of food carbohydrate organic and physical chemistry through clearly explained presentations of mono-, oligo-, and polysaccharides and their chemistry.

This new edition includes expanded sections on:

  • Maillard browning reaction
  • dietary fiber, fat mimetics, and polyols
  • discussions of physical properties, imparted functionalities, and actual applications

Need-to-know information added to the new edition:

  • Nutritional/physiological aspects of carbohydrates integrated with discussions of properties and functionalities
  • A discussion of prebiotics
  • Acrylamide formation
  • Descriptions on some food gums including tara gum, insulin, konjac, glucomannan, gellans, curdlan, dextrans, and additional low-molecular-weight carbohydrates
  • An explanation of why it is so difficult to replace sucrose in a formulation
  • Provides the key information about food carbohydrate chemistry
  • Lists of additional resources that can be consulted for additional information on the subjects presented
  • Summary tables to help select carbohydrate ingredients to provide the desired functionality

Coverage includes:

  • Structures of native carbohydrates
  • Chemical reactions used to modify structures of native carbohydrates to make more useful food ingredients
  • Reactions that each carbohydrate may undergo during food processing, storage, or preparation
  • The physiochemical properties of specific carbohydrates that make them useful food ingredients
  • The molecular bases of these properties and the functionalities they impart
  • How to select an appropriate carbohydrate ingredient for a given application
  • Descriptions of improved laboratory techniques allow researchers to achieve a higher degree of accuracy
  • International comparisons of HACCP experiences showing the extent of use and importance in food trade


1: Monosaccharides

  • Structures and Nomenclature
  • Isomerization
  • Ring Forms
  • Glycosides
  • Other Types of Monosaccharides
  • Functions of Monosaccharides in Foods

2: Carbohydrate Reactions

  • Oxidation of the Aldehydo Group and the Anomeric Hydroxyl Group of Aldopyranoses and Aldofuranoses
  • Reduction of Carbonyl Groups
  • Oxidation of Nonanomeric Hydroxyl Groups
  • Esters
  • Ethers
  • Cyclic
  • Acetals
  • Browning
  • Acrylamide

3: Oligosaccharides

  • Maltose
  • Lactose
  • Sucrose
  • Oligosaccharides Related to Sucrose
  • Fructoligosaccharides
  • Trehalose
  • Oligosaccharides from Starch and Other Sources

4: Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Structures, and Chemistry

  • Chemical Structures
  • Molecular Weights
  • Structural Modifications

5: Polysaccharides: Properties

  • Water Sorption
  • Glass Transitions
  • Solubility
  • Properties of Polysaccharide Solutions
  • Molecular Associations
  • Rheology of Polysaccharide Solutions
  • Gels
  • Food Gums as Stabilizers
  • Choosing a Food Gum or Starch as a Thickening, Gelling, or Stabilizing Agent

6: Starches, Modified Food Starches, and Other Products from Starches

  • Starch Granules
  • Amylopectin
  • Amylose
  • Granule Structure
  • Granule Types
  • Other Components of Granules
  • Gelatinization, Pasting, and Pastes
  • Retrogradation and Staling
  • Complexes
  • Products of Hydrolysis (Products of Conversion)
  • Modified Food Starches
  • Cold-Water-Soluble (Pregelatinized) and Cold-Water-Swelling Starch Products
  • Multiple Modifications
  • Blends of Starches and Gums
  • Encapsulation
  • Manufacture of Starches
  • Starch Digestion and Resistant Starch

7: Cellulose and Cellulosics

  • Cellulose
  • Powdered Celluloses
  • Microcrystalline Cellulose Products
  • Modified Cellulose Products

8: Guar, Locust Bean, and Tara Gums

  • Sources, Natures, and Structures of Guar and Locust Bean Gums
  • Properties of Guar and Locust Bean Gums
  • Uses of Guar and Locust Bean Gums
  • Tara Gum

9: Inulin and Konjac Glucomannan

  • Inulin
  • Konjac Glucomannan

10: Xanthan

  • Structure
  • Properties
  • Uses

11: Gellans, Curdlan, Dextrans, and Levans

  • Gellan
  • Curdlan
  • Dextrans and Levans

12: Carrageenans

  • Sources and Manufacture of Carrageenans
  • Structures
  • Properties
  • Uses
  • Agar: Structure and Uses

13: Algins/Alginates

  • Sources and Manufacture
  • Structures
  • Properties
  • Uses

14: Pectins

  • Structures
  • Properties and Uses

15: Gum Arabic and Other Exudate Gums

  • Gum Arabic
  • Gum Karaya
  • Gum Ghatti
  • Gum Tragacanth

16: Carbohydrate Nutrition, Dietary Fiber, Bulking Agents, and Fat Mimetics

  • Carbohydrate Nutrition
  • Dietary Fiber: Definition
  • Dietary Fiber: Physiological Effects
  • Effects of Dietary Fiber on the Gastrointestinal Tract and General Health
  • Dietary Fiber: Sources
  • Dietary Fiber as an Ingredient
  • Bulking Agents
  • Fat Mimetics

17: Carbohydrate and Noncarbohydrate Sweeteners

  • Nutritive Sweeteners
  • Nonnutritive and High-Intensity Sweeteners

18: Summary of Carbohydrate Functionalities


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Carbohydrate Chemistry for Food Scientists
Second edition
by James N. BeMiller

2008 • 389 pages • $168.00 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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