Fruit Processing Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Citrus Processing:
A Complete Guide
Second edition
by Dan A. Kimball

This book is the first complete guide to quality control and processing technology for the citrus processing industry. It offers thorough coverage of laboratory procedures, computer programs for quality control data, and management techniques, including the management of people, supplies, and product inventory.

Citrus Processing provides managers and quality control personnel with a basic framework for a quality control program, recognizing that each plant must eventually develop procedures and policies specific to its own operations and facilities.

The second edition of this standard reference has expanded its scope beyond the quality control theme of the first edition. It approaches citrus processing as a complete subject, assuming an audience interested in learning from the ground up. It will therefore be of great interest to all involved in this industry.

Experienced industrialists and technologists will still find the information here contemporary, futuristic, and fundamental. A complete book on citrus processing for the laboratory, classroom, and managerial offices.


  1. Introduction.
  2. Description of Citrus Fruit: Citrus Anatomy and Biology. Citrus Classification. Citrus Geography and Quality Control. Citrus Varieties of Commercial Importance, by Country or State.
  3. Citrus-Processing Management: Building a New Juice Plant. Plant Management. Purchasing/Raw Material Procurement. Production. Quality Control/Research and Development. Maintenance/Engineering. Shipping/Inventory. Personnel. Office/Accounting. Computer Applications. The CEO and Company Officers. Communication.
  4. Processing Methods, Equipment, and Engineering: Property/Building/Location. Fruit Receiving. Washing/Grading of Fruit. Juice Extraction and Finishing. Oil and Aroma Recovery. Pulp Wash/Pulp Recovery and Use. Finishers/Clarifiers/Homogenizers/Enzymes and Juice Pulp. Debittering and Acid Removal. Pasteurizers, Evaporators, and Chillers. Freeze Concentration. Blending. Processing Lemon or Lime Juices. Blend/Standardization/Storage Tanks. Packaging, Containers, and Labels.
  5. Quality Control: Supplier Product Evaluation. Batching. In-Process Quality Control. Final Qualification. New Product Evaluation. Customer Product Evaluation. Sanitation Monitoring. Role of the FDA. FDA Inspections. USDA Inspections. Contracted Sanitation Audits. Microbiological Sanitation. Pest Control. Physical and Chemical Contamination. Sampling. Statistical Analysis.
  6. Analyses of Brix, Soluble Solids, Acids, Oils, and Pulp: Brix and Soluble Solids. Acids in Citrus Juices. The Brix/Acid Ratio. Citrus Oils, Aromas, and Essences. Citrus Juice Pulp.
  7. Analyses of Other Citrus Juice Characteristics: Nutritional Content of Citrus Juices. Juice Cloud. Color of Citrus Juices. Bitterness in Citrus Juices. Citrus Rheology.
  8. Analyses of Citrus Microbiology: Bacteria. Yeasts. Mold. Determinative Techniques.
  9. Analyses of Processing Contamination: Hesperidin. Black Flakes. Juice Oxidation. Potassium Citrate Crystallization.
  10. Analyses of Adulteration: Types of Economic Adulteration. Adulteration Screening Procedures.
  11. Citrus Byproducts: Food-Grade Products. Animal Feed and Fuel Byproducts. Wastes from Citrus Plants.
  12. Research and Development: The Future of Citrus Processing: Research Resources. Current and Future Topics of Research. What Lies in the Future.


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Citrus Processing: A Complete Guide
Second Edition by Dan A. Kimball

450 pages • $198.00 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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