Environmental Science Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Cyanide in Water and Soil
Chemistry, Risk, and Management
by David A. Dzombak

Cyanide in Water and Soil presents the state-of-the-art in managing cyanide across a wide range of industrial and environmental contexts.


  • Provides a comprehensive review of the literature on the fate, transport, toxicity, and treatment of different chemical forms of cyanide released into the environment
  • Demonstrates that cyanide cannot be considered a single entity in regulations and engineering investigations related to water and wastewater treatment and contaminated site remediation
  • Elucidates the importance of the natural cyanide cycle in the environment and how anthropogenically released cyanide is influenced by the natural cyanide cycle
  • Presents a comprehensive summary of the analytical methods available for measurement of cyanide species in water, soil, and solid/semi-solid materials
  • Includes detailed ecological and human health risk assessment strategies applicable to industries that will help the practicing professional
  • Provides an in-depth examination of control and treatment technologies and of management approaches available for cyanide-impacted water and soil media



  • Cyanide in History
  • Cyanide Chemical Structure
  • Cyanide and the Origin of Life
  • Ubiquity of Cyanide Compounds in Nature
  • Cyanide in Industry
  • Cyanide Releases to Water and Soil
  • Cyanide: Chemistry, Risk and Management
  • Cyanide Regulations
  • Cyanide Treatment Technology

Physical and Chemical Forms of Cyanide

  • Gaseous Forms of Cyanide
  • Aqueous Forms of Cyanide
  • Solid Forms of Cyanide

Natural Sources of Cyanide

  • Cyanide in Vascular Plants
  • Cyanide in Microorganisms
  • Cyanide in Animals
  • Cyanide in Forest Fires

Manufacture and the Use of Cyanide

  • Production of Cyanide Compounds
  • Incidental Industrial Production of Cyanide

Physical-Chemical Properties and Reactivity of Cyanide in Water and Soil

  • Free Cyanide
  • Metal Cyanides: Aqueous Species
  • Metal-Cyanides: Solid Phase Compounds
  • Cyanate
  • Thiocyanate
  • Organocyanides

Biological Transformation of Cyanide in Water and Soil

  • Microbial Degradation
  • Fungal Degradation
  • Pathways for Fungal Degradation of Cyanogenic Compounds
  • Bacterial Assimilation
  • Fungal Assimilation
  • Botanical Transformation Processes
  • Environmental Impacts of Cyanide Assimilation

Analysis of Cyanide in Water

  • Interferences and Pretreatments
  • Total Cyanide Measurement Techniques
  • Weak Metal-Cyanide Complexes
  • Metal Cyanide Complex Analysis by Liquid Chormatography
  • Free Cyanide Analysis
  • Thiocyanate and Cyanate Measurement Techniques
  • Cyanogen Halide Analysis
  • Organocyanide Measurement Techniques
  • Comparative Method Performance
  • Quality Control Criteria for Measurement of Cyanide in Water
  • Measuring Cyanides - A Regulatory Dilemma

Analysis of Cyandie in Solids and Semi-Solids

  • Direct Acid Distillation
  • Acid Solution Extraction
  • Neutral Solution Extraction
  • Alkaline Solution Extraction
  • Effect of Extraction Solution pH
  • Effect of Liquid-Solid Ratio
  • Effect of Extraction Time
  • Extraction of Plant and Animal Tissue, and other Semi-Solid Materials
  • Quality Control and Method Performance Evaluation

Fate and Transport of Anthropogenic Cyanide in Surface Water

  • Synoptic Review of Cyanide Speciation and Toxicity
  • Primary Cyanide Fate-Determining Environmental Processes
  • Prediction and Assessment of Exposure to Cyanide

Fate and Transport of Anthropogenic Cyanide in Soil and Groundwater

  • Distribution and Speciation of Cyanide at Industrial Sites
  • Impact of Site Geochemistry on Speciation and Distribution of Cyanide
  • Important Fate Processes for Cyanide
  • Transport of Cyanide in Soil and Groundwater at Contaminated Sites

Anthropogenic Cyanide in the Marine Envirnoment

  • Wastewater Discharges to Coastal Waters
  • Use of Cyanide for Capturing Live Reef Fish

Cyanide Cycle in Nature

  • Global Output of Cyanide
  • Physical, Chemical and Biological Processes that Influence Environmental Fate of Cyanide
  • Why Doesn't Cyanide Build-up in Nature?
  • Cycling of Anthropogenic Cyanide in Nature
  • Combined Natural and Anthropogenic Cyanide Cycle

Human Toxicology of Cyanide

  • Exposure
  • Sites of Action
  • Symptoms and Signs Caused by Cyanide
  • Generation and Metabolism of Cyanide in Body Tissues
  • Mechanisms of Cyanide Toxicity
  • Cyanide Antidotes

Aquatic Toxicity of Cyanide

  • Mechanisms of Toxicity
  • Cyanide Bioavailability
  • Toxicity to Freshwater Biota
  • Toxicity to Marine Biota
  • Regulatory Criteria for Protection of Aquatic Life

Toxicity of Cyanide to Aquatic-Dependent Wildlife

  • Distribution of Cyanide in the Environment
  • Exposure Pathways
  • Mechanisms of Toxicity
  • Literature Review Methods and Scope
  • Data Analysis
  • Discussion
  • Bioaccumulation of Cyanide
  • Toxicity Thresholds for Cyanide

Human Health Risk Assessment of Cyanide Compounds in Water and Soil

  • Environmental Concentrations and Exposure Pathways
  • Exposure Pathways
  • Toxicity Evaluation
  • Risk Characteristics

Ecological Risk Assessment of Cyanide in Water and Soil

  • Problem Formulation
  • Ecological Effects Assessment
  • Ecological Exposure Assessment
  • Risk Characterization

Regulation of Cyanide in Water and Soil

  • U.S. Regulations and Guidelines for Cyanide in Water
  • Regulatory Standards, Guidelines, and Criteria for Solid Matrices - Soil, Sediment and Process Residuals
  • International Regulatory Standards for Cyanide in Water and Soil
  • Technical/Regulatory Issues

Cyanide Treatment Technology: Overview

  • Technology Selection

Ambient Temperature Oxidation Technologies For Treatment of Cyanide

  • Alkaline Chlorination Technologies
  • Oxidation Technologies with Ozone and Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Photocatalytic Oxidation Technology
  • Inco'S Air/SO2 Process
  • Additional Technologies

Separation Technologies for Treatment of Cyanide

  • Adsorption Technologies
  • Precipitation Technologies
  • Air Stripping

Thermal and High Temperature Oxidation Technologies for Treatment of Cyanide

  • High Temperature Alkaline Hydrolysis
  • High Temperature Alkaline Chlorination
  • Incineration/Thermal Treatment
  • Electrolytic Decomposition or Oxidation
  • Polysulfide Process
  • Wet Air Oxidation
  • Other Thermal Technologies
  • Thermal Technology Overview

Microbiological Technologies for Treatment of Cyanide

  • Process Fundamentals
  • Wastewater Treatment Process Configurations
  • Full-Scale Application of Biological Treatment for Cyanide in Gold Mining
  • Biological Treatment of Solid Wastes Containing Cyanide

Cyanide Phytoremediation

  • Phytoremediation: An Emerging Biotechnology
  • Cyanide Contamination in the Environment
  • Feasibility of Cyanide Phytoremediation
  • Modeling Cyanide Uptake and Fate in Plants
  • Cyanide Phytoremediation: Limitations and Challenges
  • Possible Scenarios for Cyanide Phytoremediation
  • Regulatory Concerns

Management of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewaters

  • Sources of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Influent
  • Fate of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment
  • Generation of Cyanide in Municipal Wastewater Treatment
  • Management Strategies for Low-Level Cyanide in Discharges from POTWs

Management of Cyanide in Industrial Process Wastewaters

  • Management Strategy
  • Examples of Cyanide Management in Industrial Wastewaters

Cyanide Management in Groundwater and Soil

  • Groundwater Management
  • Management of Cyanide-Impacted Soil and/or Residuals


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Cyanide in Water and Soil
Chemistry, Risk, and Management
by David A. Dzombak

2005 • 616 pages • $204.95 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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