Practical Food Safety Guide from C.H.I.P.S.

Food Chemical Safety
Volume 2

edited by David Watson

This volume provides comprehensive information about additives in the food industry. The book opens with an explanation of risk analysis and analytical methods in relation to the use of additives in food products. This is followed by full details of the relevant EU and USA regulations. The second part of the book provides information about specific subjects including flavourings, sweeteners and colourings.


Part 1: General issues

Chapter 1: Introduction
D Watson, Food Standards Agency, London, UK

  • Background
  • Controls on additives
  • Future work on additives
  • The structure of this book
  • Acknowledgement and dedication
  • References

Chapter 2: The regulation of additives in the EU
D Flowerdew, formerly Leatherhead Food Research Association, UK
  • Introduction
  • The key directives
  • Requirements contained in vertical food directives
  • Future trends
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • References
  • Appendix: list of E numbers of permitted additives

Chapter 3: The regulation of additives in the US
P Curtis, North Carolina State University, USA
  • Introduction
  • Food additive laws and amendments
  • Federal agencies responsible for enforcement
  • Generally recognised as safe (GRAS) substances
  • Prior sanctioned substances
  • Colour additives
  • Pesticide residues
  • Setting tolerance levels
  • The approval process
  • Sources of further information and advice
Part 2: Analysing additives

Chapter 4: Risk analysis of food additives
D R Tennant, Consultant, UK
  • Introduction
  • Hazard identification in the food chain
  • Dose-response characterisation
  • Exposure analysis
  • Risk evaluation
  • Methods for risk management
  • Risk communication
  • Future trends
  • Conclusion
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • References

Chapter 5: Analytical methods: quality control and selection
R Wood, Food Standards Agency, UK
  • Introduction
  • Legislative requirements
  • FSA surveillance requirements
  • Laboratory accreditation and quality control
  • Accreditation
  • Internal quality control
  • Proficiency testing
  • Analytical methods
  • Standardised methods of analysis for additives
  • The future direction for methods of analysis
  • References
  • Appendix: information for potential contractors on the analytical quality assurance requirements for food chemical surveillance exercises

Chapter 6: New methods in detecting food additives
C Blake, Nestlé Research Centre, UK
  • Introduction
  • Reference or research methods
  • Rapid or alternative methods
  • Future trends
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • References

Chapter 7: Adverse reactions to food additives
M A Kantor, University of Maryland, USA
  • Introduction
  • Consumer attitudes to food additives
  • Reporting adverse reactions
  • Controversial food additives
  • Summary and conclusions
  • Future trends and directions
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • References
Part 3: Specific additives

Chapter 8: Colorants
F J Francis, University of Massachusetts, USA
  • Introduction
  • Food, drug and cosmetic colorants
  • Carotenoid extracts
  • Lycopene
  • Lutein
  • Annatto and saffron
  • Paprika
  • Synthetic carotenoids
  • Anthocyanins
  • Betalains
  • Chlorophylls
  • Tumeric
  • Cochineal and carmine
  • Monascus
  • Iridoids
  • Phycobilins
  • Caramel
  • Brown polyphenols
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Carbon black
  • Miscellaneous colorants
  • References

Chapter 9: The safety assessment of Flavor ingredients
K R Shrankel and P Bolen, Corporate Safety Assurance, USA; and R Petersen, Creative Development, USA
  • Introduction: definition and use of flavor ingredients
  • The range and sources of flavor ingredients
  • Safety assessment and evaluation procedures
  • Regulatory groups
  • References

Chapter 10: Sweeteners
G von Rymon Lipinski, Nutrovina, Germany
  • Introduction
  • Definitions
  • Functionality and uses
  • The available sweeteners
  • Sweetener safety testing
  • Case study: Acesulfame K
  • Other sweeteners
  • Regulatory status
  • Analytical methods
  • Summary
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • References

Chapter 11: Food additives, other than colours and sweeteners
B Whitehouse, Consultant, UK
  • Introduction: classifying the range of additives
  • The regulatory background
  • Acceptable daily intake (ADI)
  • JECFA safety evaluation
  • Summary
  • References

Chapter 12: Antioxidant preservatives
K Mikova, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Introduction
  • Toxicological aspects
  • The Codex Alimentarius
  • The regulation of antioxidants in the EU
  • The regulation of antioxidants in the US
  • The regulation of antioxidants in Australia
  • The regulation of antioxidants in Japan
  • Future trends
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • References

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Food Chemical Safety
Volume 2: Additives
edited by David Watson
308 pages • $288.95 + shipping
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