Food Preservation Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Food Preservation Techniques
edited by Peter Zeuthen

Food Preservation Techniques provides information on new and existing developments and the ways they can be combined to preserve particular foods.

Part 1 addresses the emergence of a new generation of natural preservatives in response to consumer concerns about synthetic additives. There are chapters on natural antimicrobials, bacteriocins, natural antimicrobials, antimicrobial enzymes and edible coatings, together with a discussion of how natural antimicrobial systems can be combined with other technologies.

Part 2 covers:

  • Current research on the application of traditional preservation techniques
  • The control of pH and water activity to prevent microbial growth
  • Developments in heat treatment and freezing
  • Discussion of how these techniques can be combined with each other and newer technologies to extend shelf-life without compromising safety or quality

Part 3 contains information on newer technologies including:

  • The use of biotechnology
  • Developments in membrane filtration
  • High intensity light
  • Ultrasound
  • Modified atmosphere packaging
  • Pulsed electric fields
  • High hydrostatic pressure

Part 4 considers the challenges in combining these techniques in a way that preserves sensory quality without compromising product safety. There are chapters on key issues such as:

  • Modelling spoilage and the effectiveness of preservation techniques
  • The increasingly important problem of microbial resistance to the use of milder preservation methods
  • Setting safety criteria to account for such problems


  1. Introduction


  1. The use of natural antimicrobials

    • Natural antimicrobials from animal sources
    • Natural antimicrobials from plant sources
    • Natural antimicrobials from microbial sources
    • Evaluating the effectiveness of antimicrobials
    • Key issues in using natural antimicrobials

  2. Natural antioxidants

    • Classifying natural antioxidants
    • Antioxidants from oilseeds, cereals and grain legumes
    • Antioxidants from fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices
    • Using natural antioxidants in food
    • Improving antioxidant functionality
    • Combining antioxidants with other preservation techniques

  3. Antimicrobial enzymes

    • Lysozymes and other lytic enzyme systems
    • Lactoperoxidase
    • Glucose oxidase and other enzyme systems
    • Combining antimicrobial enzymes with other preservation techniques

  4. Combining natural antimicrobial systems with other preservation techniques: the case of meat

    • Microbial contamination of meat
    • Using organic acids to control microbial contamination
    • Regulatory and safety issues
    • Combining organic acids with other preservation techniques

  5. Edible coatings

    • The development of edible coatings
    • How edible coatings work: controlling internal gas composition
    • Selecting edible coatings
    • Gas permeation properties of edible coatings
    • Wettability and coating effectiveness
    • Determining diffusivities of fruits
    • Measuring internal gas composition of fruits


  1. The control of pH

    • The effect of pH on cellular processes
    • Combining pH control with other preservation techniques
    • The effect of pH on the growth and survival of foodborne pathogens
    • The use of pH control to preserve dairy, meat and fish products
    • The use of pH control to preserve vegetables, fruits, sauces and cereal products

  2. The control of water activity

    • Water activity and microbial growth
    • Combinations with other preservation techniques
    • Applications: dehydrated, intermediate and high moisture foods
    • Measurement and prediction of water activity in foods

  3. Developments in conventional heat treatment

    • Thermal technologies: cookers
    • Thermal technologies: retorts
    • Using plastic packaging in retort operations
    • Dealing with variables during processing
    • The strengths and weaknesses of batch retorts

  4. Combining heat treatment, control of water activity and pressure to preserve foods

    • The thermal destruction of micoorganisms
    • The effects of dehydration and hydrostatic pressure on microbial thermotolerance
    • Temperature variation and microbial viability
    • Combining heat treatment, hydrostatic pressure and water activity

  5. Combining traditional and new preservation techniques to control pathogens: the case of Ecoli

    • Pathogen growth conditions: the case of E coli
    • The heat resistance of E coli
    • Problems in combining traditional preservation techniques
    • Combining traditional and new preservation techniques

  6. Developments in freezing

    • Pre-treatments
    • Developments in conventional freezer technology
    • The use of pressure in freezing
    • Developments in packaging
    • Cryoprotectants


  1. Biotechnology and reduced spoilage

    • Mechanisms of post-harvest spoilage in plants
    • Methods for reducing spoilage in fruits
    • Methods for reducing spoilage in vegetable
    • Enhancing plant resistance to diseases and pests

  2. Membrane filtration techniques in food preservation

    • General principles of membrane processing
    • Filtration equipment
    • Using membranes in food preservation

  3. High intensity light

    • Process and equipment
    • Microbial inactivation
    • Inactivation of pathogens and spoilage bacteria
    • Applications, strengths and weaknesses

  4. Ultrasound as a preservation technology

    • Principles: acoustic cavitation
    • Ultrasound as a preservation technology
    • Ultrasonic inactivation of microorganisms, spores and enzymes
    • Ultrasound in combination with other preservation techniques
    • Ultrasonic equipment

  5. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)

    • The use of MAP to preserve foods
    • MAP gases
    • Packaging materials
    • Quality assurance
    • Using MAP and other techniques to preserve fresh and minimally-processed produce
    • Using MAP and other techniques to preserve processed meat, bakery and other products

  6. Pulsed electric fields

    • Principles and technology
    • Mechanisms of microbial inactivation
    • Critical factors determining microbial inactivation
    • Combinations with other preservation techniques
    • Effects on enzymes
    • Effects on food proteins
    • Effects on vitamins and other quality attributes of foods
    • Strengths and weaknesses as a preservation technology
    • Applications
    • Patents

  7. High hydrostatic pressure technology in food preservation

    • Principles and technologies
    • Effects of high pressure on microorganisms
    • Effects of high pressure on quality-related enzymes
    • Effects of high pressure on nutritional and colour quality
    • Effects of high pressure on water-ice transition of foods


  1. Modelling food spoilage

    • Spoilage mechanisms
    • Approaches to spoilage modelling
    • Developing spoilage models
    • Measurement techniques
    • Constructing models
    • Applications of spoilage models
    • Limitations of models

  2. Modelling applied to foods: the case of solid foods

    • Microbial growth in solid food systems: colony dynamics
    • Factors affecting microbial growth
    • The dynamics of microbial growth: cells
    • The dynamics of microbial growth: colonies
    • Evaluating types of model
    • Selecting the right kind of model

  3. Modelling applied to processes: the case of thermal preservation

    • Understanding thermal inactivation
    • Modelling microbial death and survival
    • Simulating thermal processes
    • Using models to improve food safety and quality

  4. Food preservation and the development of microbial resistance

    • Methods of food preservation
    • Preservation techniques and food safety
    • Understanding microbial adaptation to stress

  5. Safety criteria for minimally-processed food

    • Safety problems with minimally-processed foods
    • Microbiological risk assessment
    • Setting criteria for particular products


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Food Preservation Techniques
edited by Peter Zeuthen and Leif Bogh-Sorensen
400 pages • $298.95 + shipping
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