Animal Nutrition Reference from C.H.I.P.S.

Feed Evaluation
Principles and Practice
edited by P.J. Moughan

Feed Evaluation covers basic principles and new developments in feed evaluation for simple-stomached animals with an emphasis on pigs and poultry.

Feed Evaluation covers:

  • nutrient analysis and characterisation
  • nutrient bioavailablility
  • post-absorptive nutrient utilisation
  • modern approaches to the estimation of nutrient requirements (including growth modelling)
  • recent advances in feed evaluation for pigs, poultry and companion animals


Overview of determinants of the nutritional value of feed ingredients

  • Total content of energy-yielding nutrients and amino acids
  • Nutrient availability
  • Contents of antinutritional factors
  • Physico-chemical properties
  • Feed ingredient-specific effects on utilisation of absorbed nutrients
  • Effects of feed ingredients on voluntary feed intake
  • Effects of feed ingredients on the quality of animal products

Principles of chemical analysis

  • Sample collection
  • Sample preparation
  • Sample storage
  • Analysis

Developments in the determination of protein and amino acids

  • Determination of protein content
  • Determination of the amino acid content of feedstuffs
  • Pitfalls

Developments in the measurement of the energy content of feeds and energy utilisation in animals

  • Feed components providing energy for animals
  • Gross energy content of feed components
  • Measurements of energy utilisation in animals
  • Interrelationships between feed components and energy use by animals

Characterisation of the non-starch polysaccharides

  • Chemical composition and structure of NSPs
  • Mechanisms by which dietary NSPs affect animal performance
  • Chemical characterisation of NSPs
  • Measurement of viscosity and water-holding capacity

Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy and related technologies for the analysis of feed ingredients

  • Principles of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and related technologies
  • NIRS calibration
  • NIRS applications

Amino acids - The collection of ileal digesta and characterisation of the endogenous component

  • Faecal versus ileal amino acid digestibilities
  • Digesta collection
  • Determining endogenous nitrogen and amino acid losses

Amino acids: digestibility, availability and metabolism

  • An overview of amino acid metabolism
  • Availability versus digestibility
  • Unprocessed feedstuffs
  • Processed feedstuffs

Bioavailability: the energy component of a ration for monogastric animals

  • Components of a ration that provide energy
  • Determinants of bioavailability: digestion, absorption and utilisation
  • Methods for improving the bioavailability of energy in feeds
  • Definition of available energy for pigs and poultry
  • Prediction of the energy value of feeds

In vitro digestibility methods: history and specific approaches

  • History
  • General discussion of in vitro digestibility methods
  • Specific approaches to simulate in vivo digestion
  • Prediction of in vivo digestibility
  • Utilisation of in vitro digestibility methods in general feed evaluation

The significance of antinutritional factors in feedstuffs for monogastric animals

  • Main classes of ANFs, their occurrence in feedstuffs and general description of their effects on monogastric animals
  • Description and effects of individual antinutritional factors

Amino acid and energy requirements

  • Growth characteristics of the animal
  • Actual rates of protein and energy deposition; effects of the production environment
  • Stimulation of the rate of protein deposition
  • Amino acid requirements for maintenance
  • Energy requirements for maintenance
  • Control of voluntary feed intake
  • Determining the amino acid requirements of an animal

Principles behind feed formulation

  • Growth and production characteristics of the livestock
  • Tissue nutrient requirements to meet production goals
  • Translation of tissue requirements into dietary specifications
  • Nutrient composition of feed ingredients
  • Minimum and maximum inclusion limits for nutrients and ingredients
  • Formulation of diets to least-cost
  • Manufacture of the feed

Advances in feed evaluation for pigs

  • Variability in feeding value within the same feed ingredient
  • Effects of processing on the feeding value of feed ingredients
  • Interactive effects of feed ingredients on nutrient digestion and utilisation
  • Significance of microbial fermentation in the upper gut of pigs
  • Feed ingredient specific effects on nutrient metabolism in visceral organs
  • Differences in nutrient digestibilities between different classes of pig

Advances in feed evaluation for poultry

  • The poultry industry and feed evaluation
  • The digestive tract, prehension and food intake and digestion
  • Feed evaluation

Advances in feed evaluation for companion animals

  • Evolution of Canoidea and Feloidea
  • Anatomy of the digestive tract of cats and dogs
  • Metabolic adaptations of the cat and the dog
  • Criteria for diet formulation
  • Nutritional testing of diets for cats and dogs
  • Prepared cat and dog foods
  • Over-formulation of commercial diets for cats and dogs
  • Nutrient digestibility


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Feed Evaluation
Principles and Practice
edited by P.J. Moughan

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