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Food Authenticity Reference from C.H.I.P.S.

Food Authenticity
and Traceability

edited by Michele Lees

Coverage Includes:

  • Analytical techniques applied to food authentication
  • Both established and developing technologies, as well as chemometrics and data handling
  • Relates methodologies to particular food and beverage products, such as meat, dairy products, cereals and wine
  • Traceability is reviewed in detail, looking at the development of efficient traceability systems and their application in practice to such areas as animal feed and fish processing

Contents

Part 1: METHODS OF AUTHENTICATION AND TRACEABILITY

  1. Advanced PCR techniques in identifying food components

    • Qualitative and quantitative PCR techniques
    • Method validation
    • Advanced PCR techniques
    • Applying PCR techniques: identifying genetically-modified organisms in food
    • Applying PCR techniques: molecular markers and identification of cultivar or breed
    • Future trends: PCR and identity preservation of foods

  2. DNA methods for identifying plant and animal species in food

    • Meat species identification
    • Identifying species in dairy products, feedstuffs and fish
    • Identifying plant species, cell lines and animal breeds
    • Comparison and validation of methods

  3. Enzyme immunoassays for identifying animal species in food

    • Principles of enzyme immunoassays
    • Applications: identifying animal species in meat, dairy and other foods
    • Advantages and disadvantages

  4. Proteome and metabolome analyses for food authentication

    • The importance of proteomics and metabolomics
    • Proteome analysis
    • Metabolome analysis
    • Fingerprinting techniques
    • Applications: rapid authentication of food components

  5. Near infra-red absorption technology for analysing food composition

    • Principles of measurement
    • Instrumentation
    • Multi-component analysis of food products
    • Advantages and disadvantages
    • On-line applications

  6. NMR spectroscopy in food authentication

    • Using NMR spectroscopy: sample preparation
    • Data recording and processing
    • Signal assignment and chemometrics
    • Advantages and disadvantages of the NMR technique
    • Applications: authenticating oils, beverages, animal and other foods

  7. Using stable isotope ration mass spectrometry (IRMS) in food authentication and traceability

    • Stable isotopes
    • Principles of operation of IRMS
    • Current applications: adulteration of fruit juice, honey and wine
    • New applications: determining the geographical origin of foods
    • Future trends: position-specific isotope analysis

  8. Spectrophotometric techniques

    • Ultraviolet spectroscopy: detecting fruit and vegetable oil adulteration
    • Infrared spectroscopy for food authentication
    • Fluorescence spectroscopy for food authentication
    • Raman spectroscopy for food authentication

  9. Gas chromatography

    • Principles and technologies
    • Sample preparation
    • Applications: identifying flavour compounds
    • Advantages and disadvantages of gas chromatography

  10. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in food authentication

    • Principles and technologies
    • Authenticating fruit products
    • Authenticating oils
    • Authenticating other foods

  11. Enzymatic techniques for authenticating food components

    • Analysing enzymes in sugars, acids, salts, alcohols and other compounds
    • Sample materials and equipment
    • Sample preparation
    • Performing an assay
    • Routine enzymatic methods for food analysis and authentication
    • Advantages and disadvantages
    • Acronyms

  12. In-line sensors for food analysis

    • Requirements for in-line sensors
    • Current commercial sensor systems
    • In-line sampling

  13. Chemometrics in data analysis

    • Data collection and display
    • Classification
    • Modelling
    • Calibration
    • Variable selection
    • The advantages and disadvantages of chemometrics

Part 2: AUTHENTICATING AND TRACING PARTICULAR FOODS

  1. Species identification in processed seafoods

    • The importance of species identification
    • The problem of species identification in seafood products
    • The use of biomolecules as species markers
    • The use of DNA for species identification
    • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques
    • Methods not requiring a previous knowledge of the sequence
    • Methods using sequence information

  2. Meat and meat products

    • Key authenticity issues
    • Species identification
    • Adulteration issues

  3. Milk and dairy products

    • Authenticity issues for milk and dairy products
    • Detection and quantification of foreign fats
    • Identifying milk of different species
    • Other authenticity and traceability indices

  4. Cereals

    • Wheat
    • Pasta
    • Rice

  5. Herbs and spices

    • Quality and adulteration issues
    • Whole spices and spice powders
    • Essential oils
    • Oleoresins
    • Testing for sensory quality and geographical origin

  6. Identifying genetically-modified organisms (GMOs)

    • Characteristics of transgenic crops
    • Labelling requirements
    • Detection methods and traceability systems for GMOs

  7. Wine authenticity

    • Traditional and novel methods for testing wine authenticity
    • Analysis of minerals and trans-resveratol
    • Analysis of phenols, volatiles and amino acids
    • The use of NMR, FT-IR and sensory techniques
    • Data analysis

Part 3: TRACEABILITY

  1. Traceability in food processing: an introduction

    • The key objectives of traceability
    • Traceability coding
    • Components of traceability systems
    • Using traceability systems when problems arise

  2. Developing traceability systems across the supply chain

    • Accommodating multi-functional traceability requirements
    • Item-specific data capture
    • The EANUCC coding system
    • Data carrier technologies>
    • Linking item-attendant data and database information
    • The FOODTRACE project

  3. Developing and implementing an effective traceability and product recall system

    • Building traceability in the supply chain: an example
    • Key elements in a traceability system
    • Verifying control

  4. Traceability in fish processing

    • The fish processing industry
    • Traceability requirements
    • Current traceability systems
    • Improving traceability systems
    • Traceability issues in aquaculture
    • Attitudes to traceability

  5. Safety and traceability of animal feed

    • Requirements for safe feed production>
    • Risks from animal feed
    • Control systems to manage risks: GMP and HACCP
    • The role and requirements of traceability systems
    • Future trends: hazard early warning systems

  6. Geographical traceability of cheese

    • Approaches to identifying geographical origin
    • Analytical methods: primary indicators
    • Analytical methods: secondary indicators

  7. Advanced DNA-based detection techniques for genetically-modified food

    • Issues in detecting genetically-modified organisms (GMOs)
    • Developing improved GMO detection methods
    • Future trends in detecting GMOs in food

Index

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Food Authenticity and Traceability
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