Food Authenticity Reference from C.H.I.P.S.

Food Authenticity
and Traceability

edited by Michele Lees

Coverage Includes:

  • Analytical techniques applied to food authentication
  • Both established and developing technologies, as well as chemometrics and data handling
  • Relates methodologies to particular food and beverage products, such as meat, dairy products, cereals and wine
  • Traceability is reviewed in detail, looking at the development of efficient traceability systems and their application in practice to such areas as animal feed and fish processing



  1. Advanced PCR techniques in identifying food components

    • Qualitative and quantitative PCR techniques
    • Method validation
    • Advanced PCR techniques
    • Applying PCR techniques: identifying genetically-modified organisms in food
    • Applying PCR techniques: molecular markers and identification of cultivar or breed
    • Future trends: PCR and identity preservation of foods

  2. DNA methods for identifying plant and animal species in food

    • Meat species identification
    • Identifying species in dairy products, feedstuffs and fish
    • Identifying plant species, cell lines and animal breeds
    • Comparison and validation of methods

  3. Enzyme immunoassays for identifying animal species in food

    • Principles of enzyme immunoassays
    • Applications: identifying animal species in meat, dairy and other foods
    • Advantages and disadvantages

  4. Proteome and metabolome analyses for food authentication

    • The importance of proteomics and metabolomics
    • Proteome analysis
    • Metabolome analysis
    • Fingerprinting techniques
    • Applications: rapid authentication of food components

  5. Near infra-red absorption technology for analysing food composition

    • Principles of measurement
    • Instrumentation
    • Multi-component analysis of food products
    • Advantages and disadvantages
    • On-line applications

  6. NMR spectroscopy in food authentication

    • Using NMR spectroscopy: sample preparation
    • Data recording and processing
    • Signal assignment and chemometrics
    • Advantages and disadvantages of the NMR technique
    • Applications: authenticating oils, beverages, animal and other foods

  7. Using stable isotope ration mass spectrometry (IRMS) in food authentication and traceability

    • Stable isotopes
    • Principles of operation of IRMS
    • Current applications: adulteration of fruit juice, honey and wine
    • New applications: determining the geographical origin of foods
    • Future trends: position-specific isotope analysis

  8. Spectrophotometric techniques

    • Ultraviolet spectroscopy: detecting fruit and vegetable oil adulteration
    • Infrared spectroscopy for food authentication
    • Fluorescence spectroscopy for food authentication
    • Raman spectroscopy for food authentication

  9. Gas chromatography

    • Principles and technologies
    • Sample preparation
    • Applications: identifying flavour compounds
    • Advantages and disadvantages of gas chromatography

  10. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in food authentication

    • Principles and technologies
    • Authenticating fruit products
    • Authenticating oils
    • Authenticating other foods

  11. Enzymatic techniques for authenticating food components

    • Analysing enzymes in sugars, acids, salts, alcohols and other compounds
    • Sample materials and equipment
    • Sample preparation
    • Performing an assay
    • Routine enzymatic methods for food analysis and authentication
    • Advantages and disadvantages
    • Acronyms

  12. In-line sensors for food analysis

    • Requirements for in-line sensors
    • Current commercial sensor systems
    • In-line sampling

  13. Chemometrics in data analysis

    • Data collection and display
    • Classification
    • Modelling
    • Calibration
    • Variable selection
    • The advantages and disadvantages of chemometrics


  1. Species identification in processed seafoods

    • The importance of species identification
    • The problem of species identification in seafood products
    • The use of biomolecules as species markers
    • The use of DNA for species identification
    • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques
    • Methods not requiring a previous knowledge of the sequence
    • Methods using sequence information

  2. Meat and meat products

    • Key authenticity issues
    • Species identification
    • Adulteration issues

  3. Milk and dairy products

    • Authenticity issues for milk and dairy products
    • Detection and quantification of foreign fats
    • Identifying milk of different species
    • Other authenticity and traceability indices

  4. Cereals

    • Wheat
    • Pasta
    • Rice

  5. Herbs and spices

    • Quality and adulteration issues
    • Whole spices and spice powders
    • Essential oils
    • Oleoresins
    • Testing for sensory quality and geographical origin

  6. Identifying genetically-modified organisms (GMOs)

    • Characteristics of transgenic crops
    • Labelling requirements
    • Detection methods and traceability systems for GMOs

  7. Wine authenticity

    • Traditional and novel methods for testing wine authenticity
    • Analysis of minerals and trans-resveratol
    • Analysis of phenols, volatiles and amino acids
    • The use of NMR, FT-IR and sensory techniques
    • Data analysis


  1. Traceability in food processing: an introduction

    • The key objectives of traceability
    • Traceability coding
    • Components of traceability systems
    • Using traceability systems when problems arise

  2. Developing traceability systems across the supply chain

    • Accommodating multi-functional traceability requirements
    • Item-specific data capture
    • The EANUCC coding system
    • Data carrier technologies>
    • Linking item-attendant data and database information
    • The FOODTRACE project

  3. Developing and implementing an effective traceability and product recall system

    • Building traceability in the supply chain: an example
    • Key elements in a traceability system
    • Verifying control

  4. Traceability in fish processing

    • The fish processing industry
    • Traceability requirements
    • Current traceability systems
    • Improving traceability systems
    • Traceability issues in aquaculture
    • Attitudes to traceability

  5. Safety and traceability of animal feed

    • Requirements for safe feed production>
    • Risks from animal feed
    • Control systems to manage risks: GMP and HACCP
    • The role and requirements of traceability systems
    • Future trends: hazard early warning systems

  6. Geographical traceability of cheese

    • Approaches to identifying geographical origin
    • Analytical methods: primary indicators
    • Analytical methods: secondary indicators

  7. Advanced DNA-based detection techniques for genetically-modified food

    • Issues in detecting genetically-modified organisms (GMOs)
    • Developing improved GMO detection methods
    • Future trends in detecting GMOs in food


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Food Authenticity and Traceability
edited by Michele Lees
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