Pharmaceutical/Food Preservation Technology
Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceutical and Food Products
by Tse-Chao Hua

Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceutical and Food Products addresses both principles and practice.


  • addresses the principles and practices used in this important preservation technique
  • explains the fundamentals of heat-mass transfer analysis, modelling and the equipment used
  • discusses the importance of disinfection, sterilization and process validation


1. Introduction

  • Brief history of freeze drying technology
  • Basic processes of freeze drying
  • Protecting agents of freeze drying
  • Freeze drying system constitution
  • Applications of freeze drying technology

2. Fundamentals of freeze drying

  • Properties of water and aqueous solution
  • Freezing process
  • Sublimation drying process
  • Desorption drying process
  • Storage of freeze dried products

3. Heat-mass transfer analyses and modeling for drying process

  • Restriction of heat- mass transfer and its relative properties
  • Characteristics of drying process in different heating forms
  • Analyses of mass transfer control and heat transfer control sublimation drying
  • Mathematical model and computational analyses of primary and secondary drying stages
  • Thermal properties of freeze dried material
  • Discussion of mathematical model for drying process

4. Equipment of freeze drying

  • Vacuum requirement of freeze drying
  • Vacuum measurement in freeze drying
  • Vacuum pump for freeze drying
  • Refrigeration system and water vapor condenser in freeze drying
  • Small scale freeze drying devices for laboratory use
  • Intermediate experimental freeze drying equipment
  • Intermittent and continuous freeze drying equipment
  • Food freeze drying equipment
  • Pharmaceutical freeze drying equipment

5. Freeze drying of food

  • Characteristics of freeze-dried food
  • Techniques for food freeze-drying
  • Examples of food freeze-drying
  • Hazard analysis and critical control point for freeze-drying of food
  • Application of HACCP in food freeze drying

6. Protective agent and additives for freeze-drying of pharmaceutical products

  • Sugars/polyols-type protective agents
  • Polymer-type protective agents
  • Surfactants and amino acid-type protective agents and other additives
  • Formula issues of the freeze-drying products
  • Examples of formula

7. Freeze drying of pharmaceuticals

  • Basic issues for pharmaceutical freeze-drying
  • Freeze-drying of Protein and Hormone
  • The freeze drying of Fibrinogen
  • Freeze-drying of liposome
  • Freeze-drying of water-soluble and fat-soluble liposome pharmaceuticals

8. Disinfection, sterilization and validation in freeze drying

  • Disinfection and sterilization
  • Validation
  • Cleaning-in-place, sterilization –in-place and validation
  • Process validation of freeze-drying
  • Validation of technical process and the evaluation of validation
  • Daily monitoring, revalidation and retrospective validation


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Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceutical and Food Products
by Tse-Chao Hua
2010 • 257 pages • $178.95 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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