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Practical book for frozen dough manufacturing
from C.H.I.P.S.


Frozen and Refrigerated Doughs and Batters
edited by Karel Kulp et al

A technical and practical reference, this book discusses the preparation of frozen and refrigerated doughs and batters for various bakery foods. It is an ideal sourcebook for commercial bakeries and plants who supply frozen doughs and batters.

Frozen and Refrigerated Doughs and Batters presents the first complete reference on the economic, technological, biochemical, rheological, microbiological, and engineering considerations of frozen dough and batter production. It also examines the industry problems unique to the United States and European markets.

Regardless of which section of the globe you produce or market your goods, this book contains the practical information you need for enhancing your products and processes.

Contents:

Economic Potential of Frozen and Refrigerated Doughs and Batters: Frozen Dough Manufacturers. Size and Growth Projections. In-Store Bakeries: A Growth Industry. But Is It Profitable? Concepts of Direct Profitability. Bakery's In-Store Profitability. The Labor Factor. Food Service.

Yeast Performance in Frozen Doughs and Strategies for Improvement: Effects of Freezing and Thawing on Cells. Events During the Freezing Process. Physicochemical Basis of Cell Damage. Effects on Gas-Retention Properties of Dough. Strategies to Improve Yeast Performance in Frozen Doughs. Customized Yeast Strains. Modified Yeast Production Parameters. Customized Yeast Applications and Baking Procedure. Future Apporaches to Developing Improved Frozen-Dough Yeast. Recombinant DNA Technology. Novel Processing Developments.

Preparation of Stable Sourghdoughs and Sourdough Starters by Drying and Freeze-Drying: Definition of Sourdough. Role of Sourdoughs. Procedures for Extending the Keeping Quality of Sourdough. Formation of High Acidity. Partial Moisture Removal. Drying. Cooling. Freeze-Drying. Evaluation of Sourdough Stability. Sourdoughs as Dry Preparations. Sourdough Starter. Utilization of Stable Sourdough Stability. Dry Sourdough As Sourdough-Starters.

Biochemical and Biophyiscal Principles of Freezing: Frozen Doughs. Bread and Yeasted Dough Systems. Gluten Formation and Stability. Measurements of Frozen Dough Properties. Rheological Studies of Frozen Bread Doughs. The Freezing Process. Defrosting. Proofing Considerations for Frozen Doughs. Application of Plymer Science Concepts to Freezing. Retarded Doughs.

Functional Role of Microingredients in Frozen Doughs: Frozen Dough Quality. Temperature of Dough Mixing. Rest Time. Flour. Shortening. Surfactants. Oxidation in Frozen Dough. Requirements in Baking. Different Oxidant. Bromate Replacers. Oxidation Mechanism. Relationship Between Enzymes and Oxidants. Relationship Between Oxidant and Yeast.

Microbiological Considerations in Freezing and Refrigeration of Bakery Foods: Origin of Microorganisms in Bakery Products. Flour. Spices. Milk (Liquid and Dry). Egg (Liquid and Dry). Water. Other Ingredients. Spoilage Potential of Bakery Products. Effects of Refrigeration on Microbes. Effects of Freezing on Microbes. Specific Considerations Concerning Bakery Products.

Freezing of Doughs for the Production of Breads and Rolls in the United States: Effects of Ingredients on Frozen Dough Quality. Flour. Absorption. Mineral Yeast Food, Oxidation, and Reducing Agents. Yeast. Sweeteners. Salt. Shortening. Milk. Dough Additives. Mixing. Fermentation. Dough Makeup. Freezing. Packaging. Distribution. Thawing, Proofing, and Baking. Operations in In-Store Bakeries. Home-Use Procedures.

Bread and Rolls from Frozen Dough in Europe: The Frozen Dough Process in Europe. Principal Requirements for Freezing. Quality of Raw Materials and Formulations. Wheat Flours. Dough Conditioners and Other Ingredients. Yeast and Sourdough. Mixing. Dough Handling. Proofing. Freezing Process. Storage and Transport. Thawing and Baking.

Freezing and Refrigeration of Cake and Muffin Batters in the United States Formulation. Chemical Leavening. Shortening. Packaging. Freezing and Frozen Storage. Thawing and Baking. General Guidelines for Freezing of Cake Batters.

Freezing of Confectionery Dough Units in Germany: Unyeasted Frozen Confectioneries. Yeasted Frozen Confectioneries. Methods of Fermentation Interruption. Production of Frozen Dough Units.

Principles of Heat Transfer: Thermal Properties. Thermal Conductivity. Specific Heat. Thermal Diffusivity. Steady-State Heat Transfer. Conductive Heat Transfer. Thermal Diffusivity. Steady-State Heat Transfer. Conductive Heat Transfer. Convective Heat Transfer. Radiative Heat Transfer. Unsteady-State Heat Transfer. Heat Transfer During Freezing of Foods.

Cryogenic and Mechanical Food-Freezing Equipment for the Baking Industry: Cryogenic Freezing Equipment. Advantages of Cryogenic Freezing. Mechanical Freezing. Simple Basic Refrigeration System. Airflow. Standard Mechanical Freezing Equipment. Airflow Design. Subcooled CO2/Mechanical Freezing. SECO2 Freezing System. Comparison of Freezing Systems.

Packaging Materials for Frozen and Refrigerated Doughs: What Are the Requirements? Product Requirements. Package Requirements. Material Selection Affects Product Quality. Gas Transmission Rates. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Film. Performance Testing. Packaging Costs and Product Quality. Frozen-Dough Packaging. Refrigerated Doughs. Chemically Leavened Doughs. Cookie Doughs. Pie Doughs. Tortillas. Fresh Pizza Doughs.

Selected Patents for Frozen Dough, 1983-1993 Yeast Technology in Improvement of Frozen Dough. Use of Additives in Improvement of Frozen Dough. Special Processes and Equipment for Frozen Dough Products.

Index

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Frozen and Refrigerated Doughs and Batters
edited by Karel Kulp et al

280 pages $188.00 + shipping
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