Environmental Science Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Groundwater Age
by Gholam A. Kazemi

Groundwater Age incorporates and synthesizes the state-of-the-art knowledge about the business of groundwater dating.


  • Includes historical development, principles, applications, various methods, and likely future progress in the concept
  • Is a well-organized, advanced, clearly written resource for all the professionals, scientists, graduate students, consultants, and water sector managers



  • Age and lifetime
  • Age determination in geology (Geochronology) and in other disciplines
  • Absolute age and relative age
  • Determination of absolute age of rocks
  • Geological time table
  • Groundwater age and groundwater residence time
  • Young, old and very old groundwaters
  • Dead water and active water
  • Age gradient
  • Age mass
  • Mixing, dispersion and transport of groundwater age, mean age and distribution of ages
  • Average residence time of water in various compartments of the hydrologic cycle
  • Hydrogeochronolgy, interdisciplinary groundwater age science and hydrologic time concept
  • Event markers.
  • Life expectancy
  • Isochrone and life expectancy maps
  • Some groundwater age related terms
  • Isotopic age, radiometric age and decay age
  • Hydraulic age
  • Piston-flow age, streamtube age and advective age
  • Model age and apparent age
  • Storage time, mean transit time, turn over time, flushing time and travel time
  • Reservoir theory and its relation with groundwater residence time

History of groundwater age dating research

  • Pioneer of Groundwater Age discipline-sequence of the earliest publications
  • Laboratories worldwide for dating groundwater samples
  • Major contributors to Groundwater Age dating discipline
  • Names familiar in the Groundwater Dating business
  • Important publications
  • PhD and MSc theses
  • Aquifers subjected to extensive dating studies

The applications of groundwater age data

  • Renewability of the groundwater reservoirs
  • An effective communication tool for scientists and managers- and curiosity to laymen as well
  • Age monitoring for the prevention of over exploitation and contamination of aquifers
  • Estimation of the recharge rate
  • Calculation of the groundwater flow velocity
  • Identification of the groundwater flow paths
  • Assessing the rates of groundwater and contaminants transport through aquitards
  • Constraining the parameters of groundwater flow and transports models (estimation of large scale flow and transport properties)
  • Identification of the mixing between different end members
  • Study of the pre-Holocene (late Pleistocene) climate
  • Evaluation of the groundwater pollution
  • Calculation of the travel time of the groundwater plume to the points of interest
  • Mapping vulnerability of the shallow aquifers
  • Performance assessments for radioactive waste disposal facilities
  • Site specific applications
  • Identification of the seawater level fluctuations
  • Calculating the timescale of seawater intrusion
  • Disposal of wastes into the deep old saline groundwater systems
  • Management of the dryland salinity in Australia
  • Hydrograph separation

Age-dating young groundwaters

  • Important points
  • Tritium
  • Production of tritium
  • Sampling, analyzing and reporting the results
  • Age dating groundwater by tritium.
  • Sources of 3He
  • Sampling, analysis and reporting the results
  • Dating groundwater by 3H/3He
  • Helium-4
  • Krypton-85
  • Production of 85Kr
  • Sampling and analyzing groundwater for 85Kr
  • Age dating groundwater with 85Kr
  • CFCs
  • Sampling and analyzing groundwater for CFCs
  • Dating groundwater by CFCs
  • Limitations and possible sources of error in CFCs dating technique
  • SF6
  • Sampling and analyzing groundwater for SF6
  • Age dating groundwater with SF6
  • 36Cl/Cl
  • Dating groundwater by 36Cl/Cl ratio and case studies
  • Indirect methods
  • Stable isotopes of water

Age-dating old groundwaters

  • Silicon-32
  • Production of 32Si
  • Sampling and analyzing groundwater for 32Si
  • Dating groundwater with 32Si
  • Argon-39
  • Production and sources of 39Ar
  • Sampling and analyzing groundwaters for 39Ar
  • Age dating groundwater by 39Ar
  • Carbon-14
  • Production of 14C
  • Sampling, analysis and reporting the results
  • Groundwater dating by 14C
  • Indirect methods
  • Deuterium and oxygen-18
  • Conservative and reactive ions

Age-dating very old groundwaters

  • Krypton-81
  • Production of 81Kr
  • Sampling, analysis and reporting the results
  • Age-dating groundwater by 81Kr
  • Chloride-36
  • Production of 36Cl
  • Sampling, analysis and reporting the results
  • Groundwater dating by 36Cl
  • Helium-4
  • Production and sources of 4He
  • Sampling, analysis and reporting the results
  • Age-dating groundwater by 4He
  • Argon-40
  • Sampling, analysis and reporting the results
  • Age-dating groundwater by 40Ar and obstacles
  • Iodine-129
  • Production of 129I
  • Sampling, analysis and reporting the results
  • Age-dating groundwater by 129I
  • Uranium disequilibrium series
  • Sampling, analysis and reporting the results
  • Dating groundwater by UDS

Modeling of groundwater age and residence time distributions

  • Basics in groundwater age transport
  • The reservoir theory
  • Determination of age and residence time distributions
  • Aquifer with uniform and localized recharge
  • Hydro-dispersive multilayer aquifer
  • The Seeland phreatic aquifer

Issues and thoughts in groundwater dating

  • The need for more dating methods and the currently proposed potential method
  • Translating simulation of groundwater ages techniques into practice- More applications for age data
  • Worldwide practices of groundwater age-dating
  • Proposal for a groundwater age map - Worldwide groundwater age maps
  • Works which can and need to be done to enhance groundwater age science
  • Major problems facing groundwater dating discipline
  • Some thoughtful questions - Concluding remarks and Future of groundwater dating


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Groundwater Age
by Gholam A. Kazemi
2006 346 pages $104.95 + shipping
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