Water Supply and Quality Book from C.H.I.P.S.

White's Handbook of Chlorination and Alternative Disinfectants
Fifth Edition
edited by Sharon Andrew

White's Handbook of Chlorination and Alternative Disinfectants reflects the current state of the science as well as the latest practices.

Balancing theory with practice, White's Handbook of Chlorination and Alternative Disinfectantsn covers such important topics as:

  • Advances in the use of UV and ozone as disinfectants
  • Alternative disinfectants such as chlorine dioxide, iodine, and bromine-related products
  • Advanced oxidation processes for drinking water and wastewater treatment
  • New developments and information for the production and handling of chlorine
  • Latest regulations governing the use of different disinfectants
For each disinfectant, the book explains its chemistry, effectiveness, dosing, equipment, and system design requirements. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of each disinfectant are clearly set forth. References at the end of each chapter guide readers to the primary literature for further investigation.


1. Chlorine: History, Manufacture, Properties, Hazards, and Uses

  • Historical Background
  • Manufacture of Chlorine
  • Electrolytic Cell Development
  • Other Chlorine Manufacturing Processes
  • Impurities in the Manufacture of Chlorine
  • Physical and Chemical Properties of Chlorine
  • Hazards from Chlorine Vapor and Liquid
  • Chlorine Leaks
  • Calculating Chlorine Leak Rates
2. Chemistry of Aqueous Chlorine
  • Dissolution and Hydrolysis of Chlorine
  • Dissociation of Hypochlorous Acid
  • Chlorine Speciation in Concentrated Solutions
  • Hypochlorite Solutions
  • Oxidation States of Chlorine
  • Free, Combined, and Available Chlorine
  • Chlorine and Nitrogenous Compounds
  • The Chemistry of Chlorine in Seawater
  • Oxidation-Reduction Reactions of Chlorine Compounds
  • ORP Measurements
  • Reactions of Chlorine with Selected Constituents
  • Chlorine Demand
  • Germicidal Significance of Chlorine Residuals
3. Determination of Chlorine Residuals in Water and Wastewater Treatment
  • Historical Background
  • General Considerations
  • Amperometric Titration
  • DPD Method
  • FACTS (Syringaldazine) Method
  • Iodometric Method I
  • Iodometric Method II (Wastewater)
  • Iodometric Electrode Method
  • Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) Method
  • Methyl Orange (MO) Method
  • Orthotolidine Method
4. Chlorination of Potable Water
  • Microbes in Water Supplies
  • Waterborne Diseases
  • Chlorine as a Disinfectant
  • Disinfection Requirements under (Provisions of the) Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)
  • Disinfection of Drinking Water with Chlorine
  • Disinfection with Chloramines
  • Distribution System
  • Disinfection of New Infrastructure
  • Other Uses of Chlorine in Water Treatment
  • Synthetic Sources of Tastes and Odors
  • Chlorination in the United Kingdom
  • Chlorination in Germany
  • Treatment Strategies
5. Chlorination of Wastewater
  • Odor Control
  • Chlorine and Biological Treatment
  • Other Uses of Chlorine in Wastewater Treatment
  • Industrial Waste Treatment Applications Using Chlorine
6. Disinfection of Wastewater
  • Viruses
  • Methods of Wastewater Disinfection
  • Chemistry of Wastewater Disinfection by Chlorine
  • Formation of DBPs
  • Other Disinfection Considerations
  • Wastewater Reuse
7. Chlorine Contact Basin Design

  • Design Elements
8. Chlorine Feed Systems
  • Cylinders
  • Ton Containers
  • Tank Trucks/Tank Cars
  • Storage Tanks
  • Liquid Chlorine Feed
  • Appurtenances
  • Chlorine Feeders and Eductors
9. Hypochlorination—Sodium Hypochlorite
  • Background and History of Hypochlorites
  • Sodium Hypochlorite
  • Degradation
  • Impact on Treatment Process
  • Tank Selection
  • Transfer and Feed Equipment
  • Sodium Hypochlorite Piping
  • Sodium Hypochlorite Valves
  • Sodium Hypochlorite Facility Layouts
  • Calcium Hypochlorite
  • Lithium Hypochlorite
10. On-Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation System
  • Historical Background
  • Raw Material Quality
  • On-Site Generation of Sodium Hypochlorite
  • System Components
  • On-Site Sodium Hypochlorite Generation System Design
  • System Manufactures
11. Dechlorination
  • Sulfur Dioxide
  • Sulfite Compounds
  • Other Dechlorination Chemicals
  • Dechlorination Facility Design
12. Process Controls for Chlorination and Dechlorination
  • Background
  • Online Analytical Measurements
  • Online Analyzers for Chlorination
  • Online Process Control Overview
  • Dechlorination
  • Online Analyzers for Dechlorination
  • Blending Chemistry with Process Control
  • Control System O&M
  • Record Keeping and Regulatory Issues
13. Operation and Maintenance
  • Chlorine Gas Systems
  • Sodium Hypochlorite Systems
  • Dechlorination Gas Systems
  • Dechlorination Liquid Systems
  • Operator Training and Safety
  • Storage Systems
  • Regulatory Requirements
14. Chlorine Dioxide
  • Chemical and Biologic Properties
  • Equipment and Generation
  • Use in Drinking Water and Wastewater Disinfection
  • Other Disinfection Applications
  • Other Uses for Chlorine Dioxide in Water Treatment
  • Analytic Methods for Chlorine Dioxide and its Oxychlorine By-Products
  • Health and Safety
  • Regulatory Issues
15. Ozone
  • Chemical Properties
  • Inorganic Compound Treatment
  • Organic Compounds
  • Disinfection
  • Ozone DBPs
  • Use in Water and Wastewater Treatment
  • Equipment and Generation
  • Process Calculations
  • Quench Chemicals
  • Analytical Methods
16. Bromine, Bromine Chloride, BCDMH and Iodine
  • Bromine (Br2)
  • Use of Bromine in Water Treatment Processes
  • Bromides: On-Site Generation of Br2
  • Bromine Chloride (BrCl)
  • Iodine (I2)
17. Ultraviolet Light
  • Chemical and Biological Properties
  • Guidelines
  • UV Equipment
  • Water Quality Issues
  • UV System Sizing Tools
  • Operation and Maintenance Activities
  • Troubleshooting Strategies
  • Health and Safety for Water and Wastewater UV Systems
18. Advanced Oxidation Processes
  • Chemistry of AOPs
  • Uses in Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment
  • Factors Affecting System Performance

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White's Handbook of Chlorination and
Alternative Disinfectants

Fifth Edition
edited by Sharon Andrew

2010 • 1,062 pages • $148.95 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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