Food Technology Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Handbook of Hygiene Control in Food Industry
edited by H.L.M. Lelieveld

Handbook of Hygiene Control in Food Industry is a standard reference for the food industry in ensuring the highest standards of hygiene in food production.


  • Presents the latest research on hygiene control, with many of the developments currently being implemented
  • Provides a comprehensive summary of key trends and current issues in food hygiene research
  • Discusses the design of buildings and equipment, including heating and packaging equipment, valves, pipes, and sensors
  • Examines good manufacturing practice, risk analysis, and improving cleaning and decontamination techniques
  • Reviews monitoring techniques such as testing surface cleanability, sampling techniques, and hygiene auditing


The range of microbial risks in food processing

  • Introduction: the risk of microbial food-borne disease
  • The control of food safety. Using food safety objectives to manage microbial risks

Biofilm risks

  • Introduction: biofilm formation and detection
  • Pathogens in biofilms
  • Biofilms and microbial contamination in food processing
  • Prevention of biofilm formation and biofilm removal. Future trends in biofilm control

Pathogen resistance to sanitisers

  • Introduction: disinfection methods
  • Factors influencing the effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection
  • Strategies for optimisation of cleaning and disinfection
  • Types of pathogen response
  • Predicting microbial resistance
  • Future trends

Aerosols as a contamination risk

  • Introduction
  • Factors affecting aerosol contamination
  • Aerosol generation
  • Aerosol dispersal
  • Ways to reduce the risk from airborne contamination
  • Future trends

Consumer perceptions of risks from food

  • Introduction
  • Risk perception of consumers are not the same as technical risk assessments
  • Risk perception and barriers to effective risk communication
  • Developing an effective risk communication strategy
  • Application of combined consumer behaviour-food safety studies
  • The need for more intensive co-operation betweennatural and social scientists
  • Implications beyond consumers

Improving building design

  • Introduction: sanitation and design
  • Applying the HACCP concept to building design
  • Site selection and plant layout
  • Water supply and waste disposal
  • Landscaping and the surrounding area
  • Roof areas
  • Loading bays
  • Entry/exit points and external lighting
  • Inside the plant

Improving zoning within food processing plants

  • Introduction
  • Barrier 1: Site
  • Barrier 2: Factory building
  • Barrier 3: High care/risk areas
  • Barrier 4: Finished product enclosure

Improving the design of floors

  • Introduction
  • What are floors made of
  • Requirements for flooring materials
  • Test methods
  • Construction of floors

Improving the design of walls

  • Introduction
  • Exterior walls
  • Interior walls

Improving the hygienic design of closed equipment

  • Introduction: the hygienic performance of closed equipment
  • The importance of flow parameters in hygienic performance
  • Computational fluid dynamics models for optimising hygiene
  • Applications of computational fluid dynamics in improved hygienic design

Improving the hygienic design of heating equipment

  • Introduction
  • Heat exchanger design
  • Developments in heat exchanger design

Improving the hygienic design of equipment handling dry materials

  • Introduction: principles of hygienic design
  • Dry particulate materials and hygienic processing
  • Cleaning regimes
  • Design principles
  • Types of equipment in dry material handling areas
  • Conclusions: improving hygiene in powder processing

Improving the hygienic design of packaging equipment

  • Introduction
  • Requirements for hygienic design
  • Application of ISO 14159
  • Other standards and guidelines

Improving the hygienic design of electrical equipment

  • Introduction
  • Hygienic zoning
  • Hygienic electrical design principles
  • Installation requirements for medium hygienic areas
  • Installation requirements for high hygienic areas
  • General requirements for construction materials

Improving the hygienic design of valves

  • Introduction
  • Valve types
  • Hygienic aspects of valve design
  • Current guidelines, standards and references

Improving the hygienic design of pipes

  • Introduction
  • Piping design: good practice
  • Materials of construction
  • Product recovery
  • Microbial growth in piping systems
  • Plant design

Improving the hygienic design of pumps

  • Introduction: types of pumps used in food processing
  • Components used in pumps
  • Cleanability, surface finish and other requirements
  • Materials and motor design

Improving the hygienic design of sensors

  • Introduction
  • Sensor types
  • Common industrial applications and future trends

Risk assessment in hygiene management

  • Introduction
  • Quality management and risk assessment
  • Examples of risk assessments

Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) in the food industry

  • Introduction
  • Effective manufacturing operations and food control
  • Personnel and training
  • Documentation
  • Premises, equipment, product and process design
  • Manufacturing and operating procedures
  • Ingredients and packaging materials
  • Managing production operations: intermediate and finished products
  • Storage and movement of product
  • Special requirements for certain foods
  • Rejection of product and complaints handling
  • Product recall and other emergency procedures
  • 'Own label' and other contract manufacture
  • Good control laboratory practice (GLP)

The use of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)

  • Introduction: defining Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
  • The key components of SOPs and SOP programs
  • SOP requirements under regulatory HACCP programs
  • Common problems in implementing SOPs effectively

Managing risks from allergenic residues

  • Introduction
  • Food allergy and product safety
  • Management of food allergy risks
  • Role of allergen detection and other considerations

Managing contamination risks from food packaging materials

  • Introduction
  • Potential microbiological problems with packaging
  • Improving hygienic production and management

Improving hygiene in food transportation

  • Introduction
  • Legislation
  • Implementation of the current legislation
  • Examples
  • Temperature management
  • Avoiding cross-contamination

Improving the control of insects in food processing

  • Introduction
  • The grain bulk as an ecosystem
  • Moisture migration in the grain bulk
  • Dry- and wet-grain heating
  • Insects in stored products
  • Measures of control

Improving cleaning in place (CIP)

  • Introduction: limitations in current CIP systems
  • Cleaning and disinfection parameters
  • Factors determining the effectiveness of a CIP system
  • Improving CIP systems

Improving cleaning out of place (COP)

  • Introduction
  • Best practices in developing an effective COP process
  • Validation
  • Records and process documentation

Improving the cleaning of heat exchangers

  • Introduction
  • Processing effects on fouling and cleaning
  • Investigations into cleaning process parameters
  • Ways of improving cleaning

Improving the cleaning of tanks

  • Introduction
  • Problems with cleaning tanks
  • Factors affecting cleaning efficacy
  • Hygienic design test methods
  • Detecting the cleanliness of tanks
  • Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to assess cleanability

Ozone decontamination in hygiene management

  • Introduction
  • Historical uses of ozone
  • The effect of ozone on microorganisms
  • Undesirable effects of ozone
  • Practical applications of ozone
  • Future potential

Enzymatic cleaning in food processing

  • Introduction
  • Enzyme-based cleaning procedures
  • Laboratory trials of enzyme-based cleaning
  • Field trials
  • Risks

Contamination routes and analysis in food processing environments

  • Introduction to contamination analysis in the food industry
  • Different types of contamination analyses
  • Listeria monocytogenes contamination in food processing environments
  • Psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium contamination in meat processing
  • Environments
  • Applying knowledge from contamination analysis to improve hygienic food manufacturing

Testing surface cleanability in food processing

  • Introduction
  • Microorganisms
  • Hygienic surfaces
  • Organic soil

Improving the monitoring of fouling, cleaning and disinfection in closed process plant

  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Current approaches to monitoring
  • Laboratory/pilot scale studies
  • Industry requirements and potential benefits

Improving surface sampling and detection of contamination

  • Introduction
  • Microbiological surface sampling
  • Non-microbiological surface sampling
  • Monitoring/sampling protocols and strategies

Improving air sampling

  • Introduction
  • Microbial viability in the air
  • Why, how and what to sample
  • Bioaerosols and bioaerosol samplers
  • Air sampling methods
  • Bioaerosol assay methods
  • Interpretation of bioaerosol results

Testing the effectiveness of disinfectants and sanitisers

  • Introduction
  • Types of biocidal products
  • Criteria for testing biocidal action
  • Tests for disinfectants and sanitisers
  • Test limitations and scope for Improvement

Traceability of disinfectants and sanitisers

  • Introduction
  • General issues in tracing of cleaning solutions and hygiene products
  • Particular issues in tracing of hygiene products

Improving hygiene auditing

  • Introduction
  • Why have a hygiene improvement audit in the first place
  • Auditing and the hierarchy of a controlled system
  • Purposes of an auditing system
  • Designing a system for improvement audits
  • Performing the audit


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Handbook of Hygiene Control in Food Industry
edited by H.L.M. Lelieveld
2005 720 pages $318.95 + shipping
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