Food Processing Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Hygiene in Food Processing

edited by H.L.M. Lelieveld
M.A. Mostert, J. Holah
and B. White

Hygiene in Food Processing provides an authoritative and comprehensive review of good hygiene practice for the food industry.

Part 1 looks at the regulatory context, with chapters on the international context, regulation in the EU and the USA.

Part 2 looks at the key issue of hygienic design. After an introductory chapter on sources of contamination, there are chapters on plant design and control of airborne contamination. These are followed by a sequence of chapters on hygienic equipment design, including construction materials, piping systems, designing for cleaning in place and methods for verifying and certifying hygienic design.

Part 3 then reviews good hygiene practices, including cleaning and disinfection, personal hygiene and the management of foreign bodies and insect pests.


  1. Introduction


  1. The regulation of hygiene in food processing: an introduction

    • Risk management and HACCP
    • International hygiene regulation
    • European hygiene regulation
    • National hygiene regulation: the case of Scandinavia

  2. Hygiene regulation in the EU

    • Hygiene regulation in the EU: key themes
    • Enforcement of hygiene regulations
    • The General Food Hygiene Directive (93/43/EEC)
    • Specific (vertical) hygiene directives applicable to particular foodstuffs
    • Case study: Controversy over minced meat (and meat preparations)

  3. Hygiene regulation in the United States

    • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
    • Regulation in practice: the case of dairy processing
    • Inspection in the dairy industry
    • Regulation of particular processes
    • Regulation of particular equipment: the 3-A Sanitary Standards
    • Regulation of the meat and seafood industries
    • Trends in US regulation

  1. Sources of contamination

    • Physical contaminants
    • Chemical contaminants
    • Microbiological contamination
    • Controlling contamination: the case of E. coli

  2. Hygienic plant design

    • The factory site
    • The factory building
    • General design issues for the factory interior
    • Walls
    • Ceilings
    • Floors
    • Drainage
    • Services
    • Internal barriers separating manufacturing processes
    • High-risk areas
    • References

  3. Control of airborne contamination

    • Sources of airborne contaminants
    • Dust control
    • Environmental air quality control
    • Process air control
    • Air disinfection systems

  4. Hygienic equipment design

    • Key criteria in hygienic design
    • Risk assessment in equipment design
    • Regulatory requirements for hygienic equipment design: the EU
    • Drainability
    • Materials of construction
    • Surface finish
    • Corners, crevices and dead spaces
    • Welds and joints
    • Fasteners
    • Seals
    • Shaft ends
    • Doors, covers and panels
    • Rims
    • Conveyor belts
    • Equipment controls and instrumentation
    • Equipment installation
    • Insulation and cladding

  5. Equipment construction materials

    • Metals
    • Passivation of stainless steel
    • Plastics and composites
    • Elastomers
    • Lubricants
    • Other materials

  6. Piping systems, seals and valves

    • Materials
    • Surfaces
    • Pipe couplings
    • Seals
    • Valves
    • Mixproof valves
    • Appendix A: Determination factors for water flow velocity (c) and frictional resistance (_h) in straight pipe lines per 100m
    • Appendix B: Diagram for the calculation of pressure drops
    • Appendix C: Pressure drop values for fittings in metre equivalent pipe lengths

  7. Cleaning in place

    • Principles of CIP systems
    • Cleaning tanks
    • Avoiding product contamination
    • Types of CIP system
    • Centralised/decentralised CIP systems and automation

  8. Verification and certification of hygienic design

    • Testing bacterial tightness
    • Testing cleanability
    • Particular tests for cleanability
    • Certification of equipment in Europe: the EHEDG
    • Certification of equipment in the United States: the 3-A Symbol Council


  1. Cleaning and disinfection

    • Principles
    • Cleaning chemicals
    • Disinfectants
    • Testing disinfectants
    • Water quality
    • Applying detergents and disinfectants
    • Other disinfection techniques
    • Sanitation programmes
    • Managing sanitation programmes
    • Assessing the effectiveness of a sanitation program

  2. Detecting taints from cleaning and disinfecting agents

    • Cleaning and disinfecting agents
    • Testing the safety of cleaning and disinfecting agents
    • Testing cleaning and disinfecting agents for their capacity to cause taints
    • Detecting cleaning and disinfecting agents in rinse water
    • Detecting cleaning and disinfecting agents in food
    • Measurement of chloroform

  3. Personal hygiene

    • Sources of contamination
    • Direct and indirect routes of contamination
    • Controlling contamination: medical screening
    • Personal hygiene practices
    • Hand hygiene
    • Training
    • Control of indirect contamination from people

  4. Hygiene and foreign bodies

    • Management systems for preventing foreign body hazards
    • General method for preventing the occurrence of foreign bodies
    • Detection systems for foreign bodies
    • Equipment for separation of foreign bodies

  5. Pest control: insects and mites

    • The spread of pests
    • Physical control of pests
    • Chemical control of pests
    • Biological control of pests
    • Threats to successful control


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Hygiene in Food Processing
edited by H.L.M. Lelieveld, M.A. Mostert,
J. Holah and B. White

392 pages $288.95 + shipping

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