Food Microstructure Handbook
from C.H.I.P.S.

Image Analysis of Food Microstructure
by John C. Russ

Features of Image Analysis and Food Microstructure:

  • Provides a roadmap to the required steps and sequences of image analysis
  • Includes more than 200 images of food microstructures to illustrate types of analyses
  • Matches the structures to appropriate image processing and measurement tools for the characterization of those structures
  • Offers guidance on commercially available software and equipment
  • Includes a special discount offer on professional image analysis tools from Reindeer Graphics

Image Analysis of Food Microstructure is a condensed guide to the most common procedures and techniques by which quantitative microstructural information about food can be obtained from images. The images are selected from a broad range of food items, including macroscopic images of meat and finished products such as pizza, and the microstructures of cheeses, dough and baked goods, ice cream, fruits and vegetables, emulsions, foams, and gels.

The book informs food scientists about the image processing and measurement tools used to characterize a variety of microstructures in foods, using high-quality image techniques to illustrate chemical composition, thermo-mechanical processing, and genetic and structural properties.

These different types of images used to measure various aspects of structure include:

  • macroscopic light photography
  • confocal light microscopy
  • electron microscopy
  • atomic force microscope images
  • magnetic resonance
  • computed tomography

Then the text explains how to interpret images to produce data, plot the results in different graphs, and identify trends. Examples using these image analysis techniques show typical results that researchers can expect and recreate.

Image Analysis of Food Microstructure summarizes the basic procedures that can be useful in various aspects of food research, from nutraceuticals to cooking and food processing. It presents the processing of images and mathematical principles needed for image analyses in a step-by-step approach to extract key information from the images obtained.



  • The need for stereology
  • Unfolding size distribution
  • Volume fraction
  • Surface area
  • Design of experiments
  • Topological properties
  • Other stereological techniques

Image Acquisition

  • Scanners
  • Digital cameras
  • Scanning microscopes
  • File formats
  • Color adjustment
  • Color space coordinates
  • Color channels
  • Optimum image contrast
  • Removing noise
  • Nonuniform illumination
  • Image distortion and focus

Processing and Enhancement

  • Improving local contrast
  • Image sharpening
  • Rank-based filters
  • Edge finding
  • Texture
  • Directionality
  • Finding features in images
  • Image combinations
  • Thresholding
  • Automatic threshold settings using the histogram
  • Automatic threshold settings using the image
  • Other thresholding approaches
  • Color image thresholding
  • Manual marking

Binary Images

  • Erosion and dilation
  • The Euclidean distance map
  • Separating touching features
  • Boolean combinations
  • Using grids for measurement
  • Using markers to select features
  • Combined Boolean operations
  • Region outlines as selection criteria
  • Skeletonization
  • Fiber images
  • Skeletons and feature shape
  • Measuring distance and location with the EDM

Feature Measurement

  • Counting
  • Size measurement
  • Size distributions
  • Comparisons
  • Edge correction
  • Brightness and color measurement
  • Location
  • Gradients
  • Shape
  • Identification

Color Plates (insert)


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Image Analysis of Food Microstructure
by John C. Russ
384 pages $168.95 + shipping
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