Fruits and Vegetables Safety Handbook
from C.H.I.P.S.

Improving the Safety of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables
edited by W. Jongen

Features of Improving the Safety of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables

  • covers current research on identifying and controlling food hazards
  • addresses major hazards including pathogens and pesticide residues
  • presents techniques for controlling hazards, including HACCP and risk assessment
  • analyzes the range of decontamination and preservation processes
  • written by an international team of contributors

Part 1 reviews the major hazards affecting fruit and vegetables such as pathogens and pesticide residues. Building on this foundation.

Part 2 discusses ways of controlling these hazards through such techniques as HACCP and risk assessment.

Part 3 analyses the range of decontamination and preservation techniques available, from alternatives to hypochlorite washing systems and ozone decontamination to good practice in storage and transport.


Part 1: Identifying Risks

Pathogens in vegetables

  • Human pathogens associated with vegetables
  • Characteristics of pathogens recovered from salad vegetables
  • Sources of contamination in the vegetable production chain
  • Interaction of human pathogens with growing vegetables
  • Implications for control

Pathogens in fruit

  • Pathogens in particular types of fruits
  • Mechanisms of surface contamination
  • Mechanisms of internal contamination
  • Implications for control

Measuring microbiological contamination in fruit and vegetables

  • Food-borne pathogens and postharvest microbiological spoilage of fresh fruits and vegetables
  • Methods of detection and quantification of food-borne pathogens
  • Traceability and subtyping of food-borne pathogens

Pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables

  • Pesticide use
  • Pesticide residue regulation
  • Pesticide residue monitoring in fruits and vegetables
  • Risk assessment

The rapid detection of pesticide residues

  • Detecting pesticides: physicochemical methods
  • Detecting pesticides: biological methods
  • The principles of biosensors
  • Developing low-cost biosensors
  • Using biosensors: pesticide residues in grain, fruit and vegetables

Part 2: Managing Risks

Risk management in the supply chain for fresh fruit and vegetables

  • The supply chain for fresh and minimally-processed fruits and vegetables
  • Quality and risk management in the supply chain
  • Critical points in the supply chain

Good agricultural practice and HACCP in fruit and vegetable cultivation

  • Perspectives on food quality and safety
  • Food safety and the grower
  • Good Agricultural Practice
  • The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system
  • HACCP and GAP development

Implementing on-farm food safety programs in fruit and vegetable cultivation

  • Systems controlling foodborne illnesses
  • Existing guidelines and OFFS programs for fresh fruit and vegetables
  • Adoption of OFFS – grower perceptions, practical solutions, experiences from the field
  • Examples from food safety network on-farm food safety research
  • Conclusions; best practices for an ideal OFFS program for fresh fruit and vegetables. References
  • Appendix 1 - A summary of on-farm food safety Programs or guidelines for fresh fruit and vegetables worldwide

Alternatives to pesticides in fruit and vegetable cultivation

  • Alternative tactics of pest management
  • Integration of alternative pest management tactics
  • Safety of alternative methods

Improving the safety of organic vegetables

  • Organic agriculture
  • Standards and regulations
  • Safety risks from vegetables
  • What is known about safety of organic vegetables?
  • Managing bacteriological risks
  • Managing risks from mycotoxins

Part 3: Preservation Techniques

Alternatives to hypochlorite washing systems for the decontamination of fresh fruit and vegetables

  • Standardised approach to biocide testing
  • The use of alternative compounds to hypochlorite
  • Strengths and weaknesses of alternative treatments

Ozone decontamination of fresh fruit and vegetables

  • Decontamination of fruits and vegetables
  • Ozone as a sanitizer
  • Combination of ozone with other decontamination techniques
  • Drawbacks of using ozone
  • Future prospects of ozone use in the food industry

Irradiation of fresh fruit and vegetables

  • Scope of irradiation
  • Advantages and limitations of food irradiation
  • Effects of irradiation on fruit and vegetables
  • Analytical detection methods for irradiated fruit and vegetables
  • Some specific application of irradiation for fruit and vegetables
  • Future of irradiation in fruit and vegetables

Thermal treatments of fresh fruit and vegetables

  • Technologies
  • Effect on host and pathogen
  • Heat transfer kinetics
  • Practical applications and costs

Antimicrobial films and coatings for fresh fruit and vegetables

  • Antimicrobial coatings for fresh fruit and vegetables
  • Recommendations

Modified atmosphere packaging and the safety and quality of fresh fruit and vegetables

  • Background information
  • Factors that affect fresh produce shelf life
  • Effects of MAP on fresh produce microbial growth and safety
  • Effects of novel MAP gases on fresh produce quality and safety

Natural antimicrobials for preserving fresh fruit and vegetables

  • Compounds of plant origin
  • Volatile compounds
  • The “oxidative stress” and the control of postharvest pathogens
  • Compounds of microbial and animal origin
  • Additive and synergistic combinations
  • Extent of take-up by industry

Consumer risk in storage and shipping of raw fruits and vegetables

  • Precooling technology
  • Storage technology
  • Shipping.

Combined preservation techniques for fresh fruit and vegetables

  • Water activity, microbial growth, death and survival
  • Combinations of water activity reduction with other preservation factors
  • Strengths and weaknesses
  • Calculations involved in the adjustment of aw of high moisture fruits


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Improving the Safety of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables
edited by W. Jongen
2005 • 656 pages • $308.95 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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