Food Technology Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Improving the Fat Content of Foods
edited by Christine Williams

Features of Improving the Fat Content of Foods:

  • reviews the influence of dietary fats on health
  • investigates practical strategies for improving the fat content of food products
  • discusses improving the fat content of foods whilst maintaining sensory quality
  • written by a distinguished editor and international team of contributors

Improving the Fat Content of Foods addresses both the influence of dietary fats on health, and practical strategies for improving the fat content of food products.

Part 1 reviews the evidence on the links between dietary fats and health. There are chapters on the links between saturated fatty acid intake, obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes and cancer, as well as the health benefits of monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs).

Part 2 then discusses ways of reducing saturated fatty acids in food. It includes chapters on the role of lipids on food quality and ways of gaining consumer acceptance of low-fat foods, as well as chapters on improving fatty acid composition in dairy products and milk and the use of fat replacers.

Part 3 reviews ways of using polyunsaturated and other modified fatty acids in food products. It includes chapters on developing and using PUFAs as functional ingredients and ways of improving the sensory quality of products incorporating modified fats.


Part 1: Dietary Fats and Health

Health problems associated with saturated fatty acid intake

  • Saturated and trans fatty acids in the diet
  • Metabolism of dietary fats and blood lipoproteins
  • Dietary fats and the risk of coronary heart disease
  • Dietary fats, obesity, diabetes and cancer
  • Implications: controlling fat intake

Dietary fatty acids, insulin resistance and diabetes

  • Adverse effects of fatty acids on glucose and insulin
  • Evidence from animal studies. Evidence from human studies
  • Fatty acids and insulin sensitivity

Lipid–gene interactions, diet and health

  • Genetic influences on lipid metabolism
  • Genetic influences on the uptake and absorption of cholesterol
  • Genetic influences on the metabolic syndrome
  • Dietary fatty acids and the regulation of gene expression
  • Lipid-gene interactions and personalised nutrition

Health benefits of monounsaturated fatty acids

  • Lipoprotein metabolism
  • LDL oxidation
  • Endothelial function
  • Dietary monounsaturated fat and haemostasis
  • Blood pressure
  • Energy balance
  • Carbohydrate metabolism
  • MUFA and cardiovascular risk
  • Dietary monounsaturated fat and cancer

Health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)

  • Polyunsaturated fatty acid structure, dietary sources and biosynthesis
  • Metabolism of fatty acids
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Insulin resistance
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Inflammation and autoimmune diseases
  • Cognitive function
  • Recommendations for population fat intake
  • Genotype and responsiveness to dietary PUFA changes

Dietary fat and obesity

  • Epidemiological associations
  • Intervention studies: managing fat intake to control obesity
  • Laboratory studies in humans
  • Implications for food processors

Specific fatty acids and structured lipids for weight control

  • Functionality of lipids
  • Metabolic satiety and fat oxidation: effects of conjugated linoleic acid and diacylglycerol
  • The role of high and low fats
  • Weight control, fatty acids and structured lipids: a synthesis

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and health

  • CLA and body composition
  • Incorporation of CLA into tissue lipids and CLA metabolism in humans
  • CLA and blood lipids
  • CLA and insulin sensitivity
  • CLA, immune function and inflammation
  • CLA and breast cancer
  • Implications for food processors

Part 2: Reducing Saturated Fatty Acids in Food

The role of lipids in food quality

  • The contribution of lipids to the colour of foods
  • The role of lipids in the flavour of foods
  • Lipids and the texture of foods
  • Lipids and the nutritional value of infant foods

Gaining consumer acceptance of low-fat foods

  • Consumer preferences for fat in food products
  • Fat and health: awareness amongst consumers
  • Promoting low-fat food products and diets
  • Strategies to gain consumer acceptance of low-fat products

Optimising dairy milk fatty acid composition

  • Milk fat synthesis
  • The need to change the fatty acid composition of milk fat
  • Factors affecting milk fatty acid composition
  • Strategies for improving the fatty acid content of raw milk

Optimising goat milk and cheese fatty acid composition

  • Biochemical characteristics and origin of goat milk lipids
  • Effect of alpha-s1 casein genotype on milk fatty acid composition
  • Controlling milk fatty acid composition by animal diet
  • Effects of dairy technology on goat cheese fatty acid composition
  • Animal diet, processing and sensory quality of dairy products

Reducing fats in raw meat

  • The fat content of meat
  • Breeding effects on the fat content and composition of meat
  • Dietary effects on the fat content and composition of meat
  • Strategies for improving the fat content and composition of meat
  • Implications for the food processor

Producing low-fat meat products

  • Nutritional and health promoting properties of fats
  • Textural characteristics of meat products attributed to fat
  • The role of fat in flavour development in meat products
  • Warmed over flavour
  • Meat proteins
  • Technologies utilised in fat reduction of processed meats
  • Processing technologies
  • Antioxidants
  • Packaging and storage
  • Current regulations and labelling of low-fat products
  • Meat culinary issues

The use of fat replacers for weight loss and control

  • Fat replacers and their uses
  • Categories of fat replacers
  • Fat replacers and weight loss

Testing novel fat replacers for weight control

  • Short-term studies
  • Possible mode of action
  • Implications for product development and future trends
  • The range of fat replacers used in the control of body weight

Part 3: Using Polyunsaturated and Other Modified Fatty Acids in Food Products

Developing products with modified fats

  • Improving the sensory quality of modified fat products
  • Development of nutritionally improved products

Using polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) as functional ingredients

  • Current problems in producing n-3 PUFA and using fish oils in food products
  • Improving the sensory quality and shelf life of n-3 PUFA enriched foods

New marine sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)

  • Microbial sources of PUFAs
  • Production methods

Producing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from plant sources

  • The role of long chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) in humans
  • Dietary sources of essential fatty acids (EFAs) and LC-PUFAs
  • LC-PUFA biosynthetic pathways
  • Genes, technologies and resources
  • The production of C20-LC-PUFAs in transgenic plants
  • Towards the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

Modifying hydrogenated fats

  • The formation of trans fatty acids during hydrogenation
  • Oil modification techniques to produce virtually trans-free hardstocks
  • The formation of trans fatty acids during high-temperature deodorization

Novel fats for the future

  • The concept of modified fatty acids
  • Short historical background
  • Structure and properties of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA)
  • Properties of 3-thia fatty acids
  • Modified fatty acids and the metabolic syndrome
  • Health benefits for humans


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Improving the Fat Content of Foods
edited by Christine Williams
2006 • 542 pages • $298.95 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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