Fish Quality/Safety Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Improving Farmed Fish Quality and Safety
edited by Torger Borresen

Features of Improving Farmed Fish Quality and Safety

  • reviews safety and quality issues in farmed fish and presents methods to improve product characteristics
  • discusses contaminants, persistent organic pollutants and veterinary drug residues and methods for their reduction and control
  • addresses important quality issues, genetic control of flesh characteristics and the effects of feed on product nutritional and sensory quality
  • a standard reference for aquaculture industry professionals and academics in the field

Part One focuses on chemical contaminants, chemical use in aquaculture and farmed fish safety. After an opening chapter discussing the risks and benefits of consumption of farmed fish, subsequent contributions consider environmental contaminants, pesticides, drug use and antibiotic resistance in aquaculture.

Part Two addresses important quality issues, such as selective breeding to improve flesh quality, the effects of dietary factors including alternative lipids and proteins sources on eating quality, microbial safety of farmed products, parasites, flesh colouration and off-flavours. Welfare issues and the ethical quality of farmed products are also covered.

Part Three discusses ways of managing of product quality, with chapters on HACCP, monitoring and surveillance, authenticity and product labelling.


Part 1: Chemical Contaminants, Chemical Use in Aquaculture and Farmed Fish Safety

The risks and benefits of consumption of farmed fish

  • The human health implications of consumption of farmed fish
  • Nutrients in fish and other seafood
  • Methods to assess the human health implications of fish consumption
  • Fish consumption, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity
  • Fish consumption, stroke and Alzheimer’s disease
  • Omega-3 fatty acids, psychiatric disorders and the nervous system
  • Cancer
  • Health risks from methyl mercury intake through fish consumption
  • Risks of persistent organic pollutants
  • Risks and benefits of fish consumption

Environmental contaminants in farmed fish and potential consequences for seafood safety

  • Environmental contaminants and marine feed ingredients
  • Organic contaminants
  • Metals
  • Carry-over of environmental contaminants in fish feed to farmed fish fillets
  • Reducing the level of environmental contaminants to farmed fish

Pesticide contamination in farmed fish: assessing risks and reducing contamination

  • Trends in pesticide use in fish farming and in the vicinity of fish farms
  • Risks to human health of pesticides in aquaculture products
  • Detecting pesticide residues in farmed fish
  • Controlling pesticide use in aquaculture
  • Pesticides in fish feeds

Veterinary drug use in aquaculture

  • Commonly-used veterinary drugs and routes of administration
  • Drugs used in aquaculture: Antibacterial agents
  • Antiparasitic agents
  • Anaesthetic agents
  • Antifungal agents
  • Trends in drug use in aquaculture

Assessing the human health implications of new veterinary drugs used in fish farming

  • The regulation of veterinary drug use
  • Measuring drug residues in foods
  • Withdrawal times versus drug half-lives
  • What is unique about using veterinary drugs in fish?
  • Pharmacokinetics data and fish drug withdrawal times
  • Regulations and exemptions
  • Human health concerns

Antibiotic resistance associated with veterinary drug use in fish farms

  • Veterinary drug use in aquaculture
  • Current use of antibiotics in fish farming and the extent of antimicrobial resistance
  • Antimicrobial resistance in fish pathogens within the aquaculture industry
  • Antibiotic resistance in vibrio bacteria
  • Antibiotic resistance in aeromonads
  • Antibiotic resistance in Photobacterium damselae subspecies piscicida
  • Antibiotic resistance in enterobacteria
  • Transfer of antibiotic resistance between bacteria in fish farms
  • Risk of transfer of antibiotic resistance from fish farm bacteria to human pathogens
  • Improving management and monitoring of antibiotic use in fish farms

Improving disease immunity to reduce antibiotic use in farmed fish

  • Immunity in fish
  • Developing vaccines
  • Developing feed-based immunostimulants
  • Impact of prophylaxis on the reduction of antibiotic use in fish
  • Implications for farmed fish welfare, safety and quality
  • The current situation and future trends

Different methods to reduce antibiotic use in farmed fish

  • The prophylactic approach: hygiene, welfare and feeding
  • Microbial management
  • The therapeutic approach: antimicrobial compounds

Part 2: Improving Farmed Fish Quality

Understanding dietary factors affecting flesh quality in farmed fish

  • The structure and nutritional composition of fish muscle
  • The biological basis of growth and development in fish
  • Understanding the effects of environmental parameters on flesh quality
  • Understanding the effects of genetics on flesh quality

Improving farmed fish quality by selective breeding

  • Quality traits to be improved
  • Genetic parameters
  • Possibilities for genetic improvement in quality traits

Alternative lipid sources for fish feed and farmed fish quality

  • Why do we require alternative lipid sources for fish feeds?
  • Role of dietary lipids in fish growth performance
  • Role of dietary lipids in fish health and welfare
  • Role of dietary lipids in eating quality
  • What are the benefits and risks of using different lipid sources?

Plant proteins as alternative sources for fish feed and farmed fish quality

  • Global fish meal resources and availability
  • Meeting protein and amino-acid requirements in fish
  • Oilseed meals
  • Reducing anti-nutrients and other undesirable compounds in alternative protein ingredients
  • Development of non-fish meal or low-fish meal diets
  • Supplementation of fish meal with limiting amino acids

Alternative marine sources of fish feed and farmed fish quality

  • Fisheries by-catch and seafood processing by-products
  • Crustacean and shellfish by-products
  • Krill
  • Other alternative marine sources of fish feed

Tailor-made functional seafood for consumers: dietary modulation of selenium and taurine in farmed fish

  • Nutritional and health-promoting properties of selenium
  • Nutritional and health-promoting properties of taurine
  • Dietary modulation of selenium and taurine in farmed fish
  • Future trends of dietary modulation of farmed fish

Reducing production-related diseases in farmed fish

  • Fish nutrition as a major determinant for fish health
  • Nutritional and environment-related bone disorders in farmed fish
  • Nutritional and environmental conditions related to cataract development in fish
  • Other production-related diseases

Microbiological quality and safety of farmed fish

  • Micro-organisms, quality and safety
  • Microorganisms affecting fish spoilage
  • Specific spoilage organisms
  • Microbiological safety issues related to farmed fish
  • Prions and viruses
  • Bacteria, fungi and mycotoxins
  • Predictive models for seafood safety and shelf-life

Parasites in farmed fish and fishery products

  • Types of parasite
  • Reducing fish quality
  • Fish parasites and consumer health considerations
  • Legislation and control

Colouration and flesh quality in farmed salmon and trout

  • Sources of pigmenting carotenoids for aquafeeds
  • Metabolism of carotenoids in fish and flesh deposition characteristics
  • Pigmentation and fish husbandry
  • Pigmentation and diet
  • Comparing commercial pigment sources
  • Genetics and pigmentation
  • Legislation governing pigmentation of salmonid fish
  • Fish colouration, market and consumer acceptance

Off-flavour problems in farmed fish

  • Off-flavour problems in farmed fish
  • Sources and characterisation of off-flavours in farmed fish
  • Detecting off-flavours in farmed fish
  • Avoiding the formation of off-flavours in farmed fish
  • Off-flavour problems in particular fish species

Husbandry techniques and fish quality

  • Terms and definitions
  • Fish farmers and consumers seeking a common destiny
  • Welfare during the production cycle
  • Welfare during slaughter of farmed fish
  • Monitoring ethical qualities in farmed fish

Part 3: Managing Farmed Fish Quality and Safety

HACCP and other programs to ensure safe products and for sustainable fish farming

  • Aquaculture, food safety and HACCP systems
  • Implementing a HACCP system in aquaculture: a case study
  • Information needed to support a HACCP program
  • General biosecurity guidelines: an example
  • Standard operating procedures: an example
  • Disaster planning: the example of standard operating procedures for hurricanes

Monitoring and surveillance to improve farmed fish safety

  • Importance of monitoring to improve and document farmed fish safety
  • Production of fish feed
  • Monitoring fish feed components and fish feed
  • Monitoring of water quality and its relevance for food quality
  • Monitoring of food quality of aquaculture fish
  • Knowledge dissemination

Confirming the origin of wild and farmed fish

  • The importance of confirming the origin of wild and farmed fish
  • Methods to confirm the origin of wild and farmed fish
  • Application of combined compositional and isotopic methodology to different fish species

Farmed fish labelling

  • The importance of aquaculture and correct labelling
  • General food labelling legislation
  • Fish labelling legislation
  • Scottish farmed salmon: a special case
  • Eco-labelling


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Improving Farmed Fish Quality and Safety
edited by Torger Borresen
2008 • 628 pages • $288.95 + shipping
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