Galactomannan Polysaccharides Handook
from C.H.I.P.S.

Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharides
by N.K. Mathur

Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharides cotains information on their industrial uses in the form of gums including locust bean, guar, tara, fenugreek, cassia-tara, and Sesbania-bisipinasa varieties. The book describes how galactomannans are currently produced commercially, and compares their various sources.

The book begins with general chapters on carbohydrates, hydrocolloids and associated rheology, interactions of galactomannans, and derivatization of polysaccharides.

The following chapters are on specific galactomannan polysaccharides, each containing a brief history of the product gum, cultivation of the plant sources, seed, habitat, chemical structure, functional properties, manufacturing processes, and applications.

The final chapter covers less common galactomannans and glucomannans.


General Introduction to Carbohydrates

  • Carbohydrates, the Primary Products of Photosynthesis
  • Relative Abundance of Common Carbohydrates
  • Classification of Carbohydrates
  • Photosynthesis of Carbohydrates
  • Conformation of Polysaccharides
  • Functions of Polysaccharides

Galactomannan Polysaccharides

  • Biological Functions of Galactomannans and Their Classification
  • Biosynthetic Route for the Formation of Galactomannan Polysaccharides in Plants
  • Galactomannan-Bearing Plants
  • General Structural Features of Legume Pods and Seeds
  • Commercial Production of Galactomannans
  • General Chemical Structural Features of Galactomannan Gums
  • Glucomannans
  • Commercial Need of Galactomannans Having Different Functional Properties

Hydrocolloids or Gums

  • Defining a Colloidal System, Polymeric and Nonpolymeric Colloids
  • Polymeric Colloidal Systems and the Size of Colloidal Particles
  • Reversible and Irreversible Colloidal Systems: Hydrocolloids
  • Chemical Structure of Polysaccharide Hydrocolloids
  • Polydispersibility and Conformation of Hydrocolloids
  • Functional Properties of Hydrocolloids and Their Structure–Function Correlation
  • Structure–Solubility Relationship in Hydrocolloids
  • Interaction of Hydrocolloids and Water
  • Binding of Molecular Clusters of Water by Hydrocolloids
  • Gels as Colloidal Systems and Gel Forming Hydrocolloids
  • Synergy among Hydrocolloids
  • Emulsification by Hydrocolloids
  • Applications of Galactomannan Hydrocolloids in Food and Nonfood Industries

Interactions of Galactomannans

  • Types of Interactions of Galactomannans
  • Configurational Differences between Glucose Polymers and Galactomannan Polymers
  • Hydrogen Bonding Interactions in Carbohydrates
  • Synergic Increase in Viscosity and Gelling of Galactomannans with Other Polysaccharides
  • Super Entanglement of Galactomannan
  • High Surfactant Activity of Fenugreek Galactomannan
  • Adsorption of Galactomannans on Hydrophilic Solids: Applications in the Paper Industry
  • Galactomannans As a Depressant/Flocculent in Nonferrous Mineral Beneficiation
  • Modulation of Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism
  • Formation of Fused, Five-Member Ring by Cis-Pair of Hydroxyl Groups in Galactomannans
  • Interaction with Cross-Linking Agents and Its Applications
  • Cross-Linking with Transition Metal Ions
  • Interaction with Racemic Mixtures Involving Chiral-Selective Interactions of Galactomannans
  • Moisturizing Action and Gelling of Glucomannan Polysaccharide in Aloe vera Plant

Rheology of Hydrocolloids

  • Rheology of Hydrocolloid Sols
  • Viscosity Defined
  • Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids: Pseudoplasticity
  • Thixotropic Fluids
  • Hydration and Solubility of Polysaccharides
  • Dependence of Viscosity of Polymeric Molecules on Their Size, Shape, and Conformation
  • Effect of Charge on the Viscosity of Linear Polymer
  • Gel Formation and Viscoelasticity
  • Rheology Measuring Instruments and Methodology

Derivatization of Polysaccharides

  • Difference between the Whole Seed Powder and an Industrial Polysaccharide
  • Need for Modification or Derivatization of Polysaccharides
  • Polysaccharide Derivatives
  • Approval of Derivatized Polysaccharides as Food Additives
  • Production of Galactomannan Derivatives
  • Reactivity of Various Hydroxyl Groups of a Polysaccharide during a Derivatization Reaction
  • Degree of Substitution and Molecular Substitution
  • Why Was Derivatization Technology Developed?
  • Derivatization Using Gum Powder (Carboxymethylation)
  • Derivatization Using Guar Split
  • Polysaccharide Derivatives Currently Being Manufactured and Patented
  • Common Derivatizing Reagents and Reactions
  • Determination of Degree of Substitution
  • Typical Methods for Determination of DS
  • Preparation of Common Derivatizing Reagents

Guar Gum: The Premium Galactomannan

  • Transdomestication of Guar Crop
  • Guar Seed As a Source of an Industrial Galactomannan Gum
  • Development of Guar Crop As the Source of an Industrial Galactomannan
  • Estimates of Guar Gum Production and Its Consumption
  • General Structural Features of Guar Galactomannan
  • Guar Gum or Guaran: A Galactomannan Polysaccharide
  • Development of Guar Seed Processing Technology in India
  • Newer Developments and Export of Processed Guar Products from India
  • Guar Crop Agronomy and Economics
  • Guar Plant
  • Marketing and Export
  • Biotechnological Aspects
  • Nutritional Aspects of Guar Seed Protein
  • Chemical and Structural Studies of Galactomannans
  • Fine Structure of Guar Galactomannan
  • Some Physicochemical Properties of Guar Gum
  • Manufacture of Guar Gum from Seed
  • Production of Guar Split
  • Production of Guar Gum Powder from Guar Splits
  • Modified Guar Gum Products
  • Guar Gum Derivatives
  • Testing and Quality Control of Guar Gum Products
  • Rheology of Guar Gum Pastes
  • Factors Influencing Viscosity of Guar Gum Solutions
  • Super Entanglement of Guar Galactomannan Molecules
  • Solubility and Hydration Rate of Guar Gum
  • Specific Interactions of Mannan Chain in Guar Gum and Its Applications
  • Uses and Applications of Guar Gum

Locust Bean Gum, or Carob Gum

  • Historical Introduction
  • Carob Tree
  • Carob Seed, the Traditional Source of a Galactomannan Gum
  • Carob Gum or Locust Bean Gum
  • Agronomy of Carob Tree
  • Regional Considerations
  • Important Carob Plantation Regions in the world
  • Manufacturing of Locust Bean Gum
  • Flow Sheet Showing Various Steps of Manufacturing LBG
  • Potential Amounts of Marketable LBG and Price Variation
  • Functional Properties of LBG
  • Rheology of LBG
  • Mechanism of Binary Gel Formation with LBG
  • Specific Structural Features of LBG
  • Fine Structure of LBG
  • Molecular Conformation of LBG
  • Solubility Behavior of Commercial LBG
  • Preparation of LBG Solution or Paste and Structure–Solubility Correlation
  • Synergism of Viscosity and Binary Gel Formation
  • Binary Gelling Substitutes of Locust Bean Gum
  • Substitutes for Locust Bean Gum
  • Cross-Linking Reactions and Interactions of LBG with Other Polysaccharides
  • Modifications and Derivatization of LBG
  • Applications and Uses of LBG

Fenugreek Gum: The New Food Galactomannan

  • Factors That Influence Commercialization of Potential Polysaccharide Gums
  • Fenugreek Galactomannan As an Emerging Industrial Polysaccharide
  • Fenugreek Crop
  • Composition of Fenugreek Seed
  • Manufacturing of Fenugreek Galactomannan Gum
  • Dry versus Wet Methods of Extraction of Seed Galactomannans
  • Need to Adopt Dry Processing for Commercial Manufacturing Fenugreek Gum
  • Chemical Structure of Fenugreek Galactomannan
  • Conformation of Fenugreek Galactomannan
  • Physical Properties and Rheology of Fenugreek Gum
  • Surface Activity and Emulsifying Property of Fenugreek Gum
  • Medicinal and Other Uses of Fenugreek Gum

Tara Gum: An Exclusive Food Additive with Limited Production

  • Tara Tree
  • Tara Gum
  • Structural Features of Tara Gum
  • Manufacture of Tara Gum
  • Applications of Tara Gum
  • Can India Develop an Equivalent of Tara Gum from Cassia fistula Gum?

Cassia tora Gum: An Emerging Commercial Galactomannan

  • Commercially Produced Galactomannan Gums
  • Chemical Structure of Cassia tora Gum
  • Dependence of the Functional Properties of Galactomannans on Their M:G Ratio
  • Gelling Gums
  • Mechanism of Binary Gelling
  • Common Toxic Constituents in Legume Seeds
  • Anthraquinone Pigments in Legume Seeds
  • Cassia tora Crop
  • Cassia tora Seed
  • Cassia tora Gum and Its Structure
  • Rheology of Cassia tora Gum
  • GRAS Specification and E Numbers for Food Additives
  • Present Status of CT Gum

Miscellaneous, Less Common Galactomannans and Glucomannans

  • Cassia fistula Tree
  • Cassia fistula Seed Gum: Need to Explore Production and Commercialization
  • Extraction of Cassia fistula Seed Gum: Dry Grinding and Wet Extraction Methods
  • Functional Properties of Cassia fistula Gum
  • Structural Features of Cassia fistula Galactomannan
  • Why Explore and Commercialize Cassia fistula Gum?
  • What Can Be the Possible Uses of Cassia fistula Gum?
  • Galactomannan from Pods of Prosopis juliflora
  • Glucomannan Polysaccharides
  • Konjak Glucomannan
  • Uses and Applications of Konjak Glucomannan
  • Aloe vera Glucomannan
  • Aloe vera Glucomannan, Gel or Fluid


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Industrial Galactomannan Polysaccharides
by N.K. Mathur
2011 • 187 pages • $128.95 + shipping
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