Mechanical Engineering Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Injury Biomechanics and Control
Optimal Protection from Impact
by Walter D. Pilkey

With Injury Biomechanics and Control as their guide, readers will discover how to design better protective equipment and devices such as helmets, seat belts, and wheelchairs in order to minimize the risk or the extent of injury to people subjected to impact loads.

The first part lays down the engineering foundation, setting forth core principles and techniques, including:

• Fundamentals of impact and shock isolation systems
• Basic optimal shock isolation for single-degree-of-freedom systems
• Optimal shock isolation for multi-degree-of freedom systems
The second part applied the principles set forth in the first part to solve real-world problems, using simple mathematical models that simulate the mechanical response of human bodies to impact loads in order to optimize shock isolation systems.

Injury Biomechanics and Control enables scientists, engineers, and students in mechanical, biomechanical, and biomedical engineering to fully realize the potential of shock isolation methods for the development of protective equipment and devices.

Contents

Fundamentals of Impact and Shock Isolation

• Shock Isolation
• The Isolator as a Control Medium: Active and Passive Isolators
• Does Isolation of an Object from the Base Always Lead to a Reduction in the Shock Load Transmitted to the Object?
Basic Optimal Shock Isolation: Single Degree of Freedom Systems
• Basic Problems
• Limiting Performance Analysis: Basic Concept and Analytical Results
• Limiting Performance Analysis: Computational Approach
• Parametric Optimization
• Pre-Acting Control for Shock Isolators
• Best and Worst Disturbance Analyses
Optimal Shock Isolation for Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Systems
• Optimal Shock Isolation for a Two-Component Viscoelastic Object
• Optimal Shock Isolation for Three-Component Structures
Spinal Injury Control
• Description of the Model
• Minimization of the Occupant’s Displacement subject to a Constraint Imposed on the Spinal Compressive Force
• Spinal Injury Control System with two Shock Isolators
• MADYMO Simulation for the Limiting Performance Analysis
Thoracic Injury Control
• Smart Restraint Systems
• Basic Concept of Restraint Force Control
• Limiting Performance Analysis for the Prevention of Thoracic Injuries in a Frontal Car Crash
• Feedback Control of the Elastic Restraint Force on the Basis of the Two-Mass Thorax Injury Model
• Head Injury Criterion: Historical Perspectives
• Minimization of the Deceleration Distance for Constrained HIC
• Minimization of the HIC for Constrained Deceleration Distance
• Alternative Control Laws
Injury Control for Wheelchair Occupants
• Optimal Shock Isolation of Single-Degree-of-Freedom System
Index