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Joint Cognitive Systems
Patterns in Cognitive Systems Engineering
by David D. Woods

Features of Joint Cognitive Systems:

  • Synthesizes basic results on how to design human work with complex systems
  • Provides examples of CSE research and design successes
  • Covers patterns in Cognitive Task Analysis
  • Discusses basic findings or control laws that determine the behavior and performance of joint systems
  • Comprehensive coverage of 20+ years of results on how Joint Cognitive Systems work and how to design them


Core Activities and Values

  • Adaptability versus Limits
  • Complementarity
  • Core Values of CSE in Practice On Systems in CSE
  • Patterns
  • Discovering Patterns in Joint Cognitive Systems at Work
  • A JCS at Work

Joint Cognitive Systems Adapt to Cope with Complexity

  • Adaptation in Joint Cognitive Systems at work

Being Bumpable

  • The Story: A Delay
  • The Intensive Care Unit the Scene, the Cast, and BackDrop
  • Coping with Complexity: Parceling out beds by the Bedmeister
  • Artifacts as Tools: The Bed Book
  • Preparing for Demand > Supply Situations
  • Son of coping: Building an ICU from Scratch
  • Piling Pelion on Ossa: Escalating Demands
  • Observations on the Incident

Discovery as Functional Synthesis

  • 'Being Bumpable' as An Example of Studying a JCS at work
  • Insight and Functional Synthesis

Shaping the Conditions of Observation

  • Three Families of Methods
  • Converging Operations
  • The Psychologist's Fallacy

Functional Syntheses, Laws, and Design

  • Properties of Functional Syntheses
  • On Laws that Govern Joint cognitive Systems at Work
  • Challenges To Inform Design
  • Patterns in How Joint Cognitive Systems Work

Archetypical Stories of Joint Cognitive Systems at Work

  • Demands and Adaptation
  • Affordances
  • Coordination
  • Resilience
  • Story Archetypes in 'Being Bumpable'

Anomaly Response

  • Control Centers in Action
  • Cascading Effects
  • Interventions
  • Revision
  • Fixation
  • Generating Hypotheses
  • Recognizing Anomalies
  • The Puzzle of Expectancies
  • Control of Attention
  • Alarms and Directed Attention
  • Updating Common Ground When a Team Member Returns
  • Updating a Shared Frame of Reference
  • Patterns in Anomaly Response

Patterns in Multi-Threaded Work

  • Managing Multiple Threads in Time
  • Tempo
  • Escalation
  • Coupling
  • Premature Narrowing
  • Reframing
  • Dilemmas
  • Over-Simplifications

Automation Surprises

  • The Substitution Myth
  • Surprises about Automation
  • Brittleness
  • Managing Workload in Time
  • Tailoring
  • Failure of Machine Explanation
  • Why is technology so Often Clumsy?
  • Making Automation a Team Player
  • A Coordination Breakdown in Response to a Disrupting Event

On People and Computers in JCSS at Work

  • Envisioning The Impact of New Technology
  • Responsibility in Joint Cognitive Sytems at Work
  • Problem-Holders
  • Goal Conflicts
  • Adapting to Double Binds
  • Literal-Minded Agents
  • Norbert's Contrast
  • Directions for Designing Joint Cognitive Systems that Include Robotic Platforms
  • Reverberations of New Robotic Technologies

Laws that Govern JCSS at Work

  • A Tactic to Reduce the Mis-Engineering of Joint Cognitive Systems
  • Five Families of First Principles or Laws
  • Laws That Govern Joint Cognitive Systems at work
  • Generic Requirements to Design Joint Cognitive Systems that Work
  • Design Responsibility
  • Patterns and Stories


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Joint Cognitive Systems
Patterns in Cognitive Systems Engineering
by David D. Woods

2006 219 pages $98.95 + shipping
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