Practical Professional Malting Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Malts and Malting
by Dennis E. Briggs

Malting is a commercial activity of world-wide importance as malts are used in the manufacture of beers, whiskies, foodstuffs, non-alcoholic beverages and confectionery.

Malts and Malting provides an essential, up-to-date account of malt manufacture with an emphasis on barley as the most used cereal grain. After an initial description of how malts are produced and used the book examines the structure of barley grains, the physiology of grain germination and malting biochemistry.


An introduction to malts and their uses: Malting in outline. Coffee substitutes. Malt flours and malted wheat used in baking. Ancient Middle Eastern methods of brewing. Bouza, merissa and busaa. Other opaque beers, fermented gruels and porridges. Clear beers and stouts. Malt extracts. Diastase. Breakfast cereals and pre-digested foods. Distilled products. Malt vinegar. Other uses of malt.
Grains and pulses: The cereal grains, peas and beans. The barley plant. The quiescent barley grain. Barley classification and varietal identification. Other cereal grains. Pulses or legumes. Physical changes occurring in malting barley. Germinatin and modification in other species. Barley cultivation. The improvement of the barley crop.
Grain physiology: The functions of different tissues of barley and other grains. The statistics of grain testing. Water uptake by grains. The permeability of grains to solutes. Assessments of husk content and some aspects of grain quality. Viability, germinability and dormancy. The respiratory metabolism of grain. Microbes and malting.
The biochemistry of malting: The composition of grains. The chemical changes occurring during malting. The carbohydrates of quiescent and malting grains. Starch and its breakdown. Non-starch polysaccharides. Regularities in the carbohydrate composition of barley. Proteins and amino acids in barley. Nucleic acids and related substances. Other nitrogenous grain components. Lipids. Phosphates and inorganic constituents. Vitamins and yeast growth factors. Miscellaneous substances. Phenols and related substances. The regulation of modification in malting. Some chemical and biochemical aspects of roasting and kilning.
The principles of mashing: Commercial mashing processes. Some aspects of mashing biochemistry. Wort separation and sparging.
The selection and purchase of grain: Sampling. Hand evaluation and some laboratory tests. Moisture content. Water uptake by grains and distribution in the starchy endosperm. Grain size. The bulk density of grain. The specific gravity of grains. The nitrogen or protein content of barley. Determinations of germinative capacity. Tests of germinative energy. Grain composition. Microbes, mycotoxins and chemical residues.
Grain in store: The microbes associated with grains. Insects and mite pests stored in grain. Other pests of stored grain. Grain heating. Moisture distribution in stored grain. Germinability, viability and grain characteristics. Hazards in grain stores. Grain aeration and ventilation. Operating grain stores: good housekeeping.
Handling and storing grains and malts: Grain intake. Moving grain. Mixing and blending. Weighing. Grain pre-cleaning, cleaning and grading. Cleaning and grading. Grain drying. Application of insecticides and fumigants. Grain storage facilities. Handling malts. Changes in grain weight and volume during processing. Malt delivery. Organization.
Malting technology: Floor-malting. Abraders. Grain washing and destoning. Weights, volumes and capacities. Water for steeping. Maltings' effluent. Steeping. Malting systems. Multi-function systems. Kilning. Cooling and deculming. Malt storage. By-products: culms and malt dust. Roasting plant. Malt blending and dispatch. The organization of maltings.
Energy used in malting: Sources of heat for barley drying and malt kilning. The physics of water removal from grain. Barley drying. Conditions during germination. Kilning malt. The removal of moisture from green malt or barley. Drying on kiln.
Experimental malting: Types of small-scale malting equipment. The assessment of 'micromalts'.
Competitors for malt: The common cereal grains. Analyses of adjuncts. Whole cereal grains. Grain preparations. Refined starches. Sugars. Malt extracts and wort replacement syrups. Caramels. Industrial enzymes. The future.
Malt analysis: Sampling malts. Statistics of analyses. The sensory evaluation of malts. Corn size. Grain density. Permeability, porosity and conpressibility. Malt germinability. Patterns of modification. Mechanical assessments of malt modification. Half-grain mashing. Moisture content. Cold water extract. Hot water extract. Some determinations made on laboratory worts. Mash viscosity. Nitrogen fractions of malt. Enzymes in malt. Gums and hemicelluloses. Phenolic materials. Some other analyses. Microbes and microbial metabolites.
Malting conditions and their influences in malting: Floor malting. Pneumatic malting. Malting losses. Changes that occur during malting. Barley characteristics and malting. Correlation between barley analyses and malt quality. Steeping. Casting the grain. The effects of varying germination conditions in malting. The use of gibberellic acid in malting. Physical treatments of grains. The use of bromates in malting. The use of other additives during malting. Substances applied to green malt for purposes other than controlling malting losses. Kropff malting. Undermodified malts. Physical methods of checking malting losses. Kilning. Controlling wort fermentability. Dressing malt. Malt storage and blending. Culms.
Types of malt: Barley chit malts and short-grown malts. Green malts and lightly kilned malts. Providence malt. Pilsener and other pale-lager malts. Pale-ale, mild-ale and standard malts. North American malts. Diastatic malts, grain-distillers' malts and pot-distillers' malts. Other 'smoked' malts. Vienna-type malts. Munich-type malts. Proteolytic, enzymic and acid malts. Food and vinegar malts. Special barley malts. Crystal and caramel malts. Amber malts. Porter, brown, 'snapped' or 'blown' malts. Roasted barley. chocolate and black, roasted malts. Malts made from cereals other than barley.
Appendix. References. Index.

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Malts and Malting
by Dennis E. Briggs
1998 796 pages $148.00 + shipping
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