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Definitive Meat Processing Guide from C.H.I.P.S.

Meat Processing
Improving Quality
edited by Joseph Kerry, John Kerry and David Ledward

Meat Processing reviews the latest research on what defines and determines meat quality, and how it can be maintained or improved during processing.

Part 1 considers the various aspects of meat quality. There are chapters on what determines the quality of raw meat, changing views of the nutritional quality of meat and the factors determining such quality attributes as color and flavor.

Part 2 discusses how these aspects of quality are measured, beginning with the identification of appropriate quality indicators. It also includes chapters on both sensory analysis and instrumental methods including on-line monitoring and microbiological analysis.

Part 3 reviews the range of new processing techniques that have been deployed at various stages in the supply chain. Chapters include the use of modelling techniques to improve quality and productivity in beef cattle production, new decontamination techniques after slaughter, automation of carcass processing, high pressure processing of meat, developments in modified atmosphere packaging and chilling and freezing. There are also chapters on particular products such as restructured meat and fermented meat products.

With its detailed and comprehensive coverage of what defines and determines meat quality, Meat Processing will be a standard reference for all those involved in the meat industry and meat research.

Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Defining meat quality
T Becker, University of Hohenheim, Germany

  • What is quality?
  • Consumer perceptions of quality
  • Supplier perceptions of quality
  • Combining consumer and supplier perceptions: the quality circle
  • Regulatory definitions of quality
  • Improving meat and meat product quality

Part 1: Analysing meat quality

Chapter 3: Factors affecting the quality of raw meat
R K Miller, Texas A & M University, USA

  • Quality, meat composition and structure
  • Breed and genetic effects on meat quality
  • Dietary influences on meat quality
  • Rearing and meat quality
  • Slaughtering and meat quality
  • Other influences on meat quality
  • Summary: ensuring consistency in raw meat quality

Chapter 4: The nutritional quality of meat
J Higgs, Food to Fit; and B Mulvihill, The National Food Centre, Ireland

  • Meat and cancer
  • Meat, fat content and disease
  • Fatty acids in meat
  • Protein in meat
  • Meat as a functional food
  • Meat and micronutrients

Chapter 5: Lipid-derived flavours in meat products
F Shahidi, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada

  • The role of lipids in generating meaty flavours
  • Lipid autoxidation and meat flavour deterioration
  • The effect of ingredients on the flavour quality of meat
  • The evaluation of aroma compounds and flavour quality

Chapter 6: Modelling colour stability in meat
M Jakobsen and G Bertelsen, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Denmark

  • External factors affecting colour stability during packaging and storage
  • Modelling dynamic changes in headspace composition
  • Modelling in practice: fresh beef
  • Modelling in practice: cured ham
  • Internal factors affecting colour stability
  • Validation of models

Chapter 7: Maximising texture quality in meat
D Troy, The National Food Centre, Ireland

  • Pre-slaughter influences on texture
  • Post-slaughter influences on texture
  • Measuring meat texture

Part 2: Measuring quality

Chapter 8: Quality indicators for raw meat
M D Aaslyng, Danish Meat Research Institute, Denmark

  • Technological quality
  • Eating quality
  • Determining eating quality
  • Sampling procedures

Chapter 9: Sensory analysis of meat
G R Nute, University of Bristol, UK

  • The sensory panel
  • Sensory tests
  • Category scales
  • Sensory profile methods and comparisons with instrumental measurements
  • Comparisons between countries

Chapter 10: On-line monitoring of meat quality
H J Swatland, University of Guelph, Canada

  • Measuring electrical impedance
  • Measuring pH
  • Analysing meat properties using NIR spectrophotometry
  • Measuring meat colour and other properties
  • Water-holding capacity
  • Sarcomere length
  • Connective tissue
  • Marbling and fat content
  • Meat flavour
  • Boar taint
  • Emulsions
  • Measuring changes during cooking

Chapter 11: Methods for the microbiological examination of meat and meat products
J Corry, University of Bristol, UK

  • Sampling
  • Microbiological methods
  • Quality assurance
  • Microbiological specifications

Part 3: New techniques for improving quality

Chapter 12: Modelling beef cattle production to improve quality
K G Rickert, University of Queensland, Australia

  • Elements of beef cattle production
  • Challenges for modellers
  • Simple model of herd structure

Chapter 13: New developments in decontaminating raw meat
C James, Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, UK

  • Current decontamination techniques and their limitations
  • Washing
  • The use of chemicals
  • New methods: steam
  • Other new methods

Chapter 14: Automated meat processing
K B Madsen and J U Nielsen, Danish Meat Research Institute, Denmark

  • Current developments in robotics in the meat industry
  • Automation in pig slaughtering
  • Case study: the evisceration process
  • Automation of secondary processes

Chapter 15: New developments in the chilling and freezing of meat
S J James, Food Refrigeration and Process Engineering Research Centre (FRPERC), University of Bristol, UK

  • The impact of chilling and freezing on texture
  • The impact of chilling and freezing on colour
  • The impact of chilling and freezing on drip loss and evaporative weight loss
  • The cold chain
  • Temperature monitoring
  • Optimising the design and operation of meat refrigeration

Chapter 16: High pressure processing of meat
J Culioli, INRA; and M de Lamballerie-Anton, ENITIAA, France

  • The principles of high pressure (HP) processing
  • The effect of HP on food components
  • Effects on meat structure
  • Effects on enzyme release and activity
  • Effects on texture and colour
  • Effects on lipid oxidation
  • Effects on functional properties of meat proteins
  • Effects on microflora
  • Current applications and future developments

Chapter 17: Processing and quality control of restructured meat
P Sheard, University of Bristol, UK

  • Product manufacture
  • Factors affecting product quality: temperature, ice content, particle size and mechanical properties
  • Factors affecting product quality: protein solubility and related factors
  • Factors affecting product quality: cooking distortion
  • Sensory and consumer testing

Chapter 18: Quality control of fermented meat products
D Demeyer, Gent University, Belgium; and L Stahnke, Technical University of Denmark

  • The product
  • The quality concept
  • Sensory quality and its measurement
  • Appearance and colour: measurement and development
  • Texture: measurement and development
  • Flavour: measurement and development
  • Taste and aroma: measurement and development
  • The control and improvement of quality
  • Future trends in quality development

Chapter 19: The fat content of meat and meat products
A P Moloney, The National Food Centre, Ireland

  • Fat and the consumer
  • The fat content of meat
  • Animal effects on the fat content and composition of meat
  • Dietary effects on the fat content and composition of meat

Chapter 20: Quality control of low-fat meat products
J F Kerry, University College Cork, Ireland

  • The influence of fat on product quality
  • Current trends in product development
  • Techniques for fat reduction in processed meats
  • Functional ingredients used in low fat meat products
  • Other factors influencing product quality

Chapter 21: Packaging
J P Kerry, University College Cork, Ireland

  • The use of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)
  • Developments in MAP systems
  • Active packaging

Index

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Meat Processing: Improving Quality
edited by Joseph Kerry, John Kerry and David Ledward
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