Veterinary Medicine Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Medical Mathematics and Dosage Calculations for Veterinary Professionals
Second Edition
by Robert Bill

Medical Mathematics and Dosage Calculations for Veterinary Professionals is an updated and revised version of the essential pocket-size reference for using math in the veterinary setting.

Covering a range of topics from math fundamentals to drug prescription and dosing information, the book provides step-by-step instructions for calculating dosages, drip rates, concentrations, and other drug administration information.

Contents

1. Self-Assessment

• Self-Assessment Exercise
2. Review of Decimal Numbers in Medical Math
• Relative Values
• The Rules for the Use of Zero in Decimal Numbers
• Comparing Decimals – Determining Which Number Is Larger at a Glance
• Scientific Notation for Decimal Numbers
• Tips for Adding and Subtracting Decimals
3. Fractions as They Apply to Medical Math
• Numerators and Denominators
• The Larger the Denominator, the Smaller the Piece (and the Smaller the Number Value)
• Improper Fractions, Proper Fractions, and Mixed Numbers
• Understanding and Using Equivalent Fractions
• Simplifying or Reducing Fractions
• Finding the Common Denominator for More Complex Fractions
• Subtraction of Fractions
• Subtraction of Mixed Numbers
• Multiplication of Improper Fractions
• Multiplication of Whole Numbers and Fractions
• Multiplication of Mixed Numbers
• A Shortcut for Multiplying Fractions
• The Reciprocal: What Is It and How Do We Use It?
• Division of Fractions
• Division of Mixed Numbers
• Rounding Decimal Fractions and Fractions
4. Percentages
• Conversion of Percentages to Fractions
• Conversion of Percentages to Decimal Numbers
• Conversion of Fractions to Percentages
• Finding the Percentage of a Whole
• Subtracting or Adding the Percentage of the Whole
• Determining Percentages Represented by the Fractional Component
5. Solving for the Unknown Value X
• Analyzing the Problem and Setting Up the Equation
• Moving the Values from One Side of the Equation to the Other
• Moving Negative Numbers or a Negative Unknown X Used in a Subtraction Problem
• Finding the Unknown X in a Multiplication Problem
• Multiplication Problems Using Fractions and Mixed Numbers
• What to Do When the Unknown X Is in the Denominator in the Problem
• Finding the Unknown X in a Division Problem
• Unknown X Problems Involving Division of Fractions
6. Dosage Calculation and Measurements Used in Veterinary Medicine
• Different Units, Same Measurements
• The Basic Units of the Metric System
• Metric Units of Weight or Mass
• Metric Units of Volume
• Metric Units of Length
• Combination of Metric Units to Describe Density or Concentrations
• Common Units
• Conversions between Common Household Measurements
• The Common Equivalents
• Setting Up a Problem to Convert from One Unit to Another
• The Cancel-Out Method
7. Understanding Drug Orders and Drug Labels
• The Dose, Dosage, and Dose Range
• The Dose Interval
• The Dose Form
• Best Practices for Writing Drug Orders
• Handling Unclear Drug Orders
• The Drug Name
• Concentration of Drug in the Dose Form
• Dose Formulation and Number of Dose Form Units
• Approved Use for the Drug
• Controlled Substances and Prescription Labeling
• United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and National Formulary (NF) Label Designations
• Hazard Warnings on the Label
• Storage Information on the Label
• Expiration Dates
8. Dose Calculation and Syringe Measurements
• Converting the Animal’s Weight into the Units Needed to Calculate the Dose
• Types of Dosages Listed
• Putting It All Together – Determining the Dose for the Patient
• Proportion Method (Liquid)
• Cancel-Out Method (Liquid)
• Proportion Method (Tablets)
• Cancel-Out Method (Tablets)
• What to Do When Tablet Doses Don’t Come Out Even
• Dispensing Multiple Units of Drug Form
• Proportion Method
• Cancel-Out Method
• Here Is the Most Common Mistake Students Make When Calculating Total Tablets Dispensed
• Types of Syringes Used in Veterinary Medicine
• Syringe Units of Measurement
• Measuring the Amount of Liquid in a Syringe
9. Calculating Intravenous Infusions
• Types of IV Administration Sets Used in Veterinary Medicine
• Determining the Fluid Rate Delivered through an IV Administration Set
• Setting the Flow Rate Using the Drip Chamber Rate
• Determining the Total Volume Delivered over Time
• Converting Total Infusion Time to the 12- and 24-Hour Clock Stop Time
10. Ratios, Proportions, Dilutions, and Other Calculation Used by Veterinary Professinals
• Making Serial Dilutions.
• Diluting for Specific Solutions with Specific Volumes
• Compounding to Create Percentage Solutions
• Diluting Percentage Solutions
• Writing Roman Numerals
Index