Practical Reference for Food Microbiological Analysis from C.H.I.P.S.

Microbiological Analysis of Red Meat, Poultry and Eggs
edited by Geoffrey C. Mead

Microbiological Analysis of Red Meat, Poultry and Eggs describes and discusses the key aspects of microbiological analysis, such as:

  • sampling methods
  • use of fecal indicators
  • current approached to testing of foods
  • detection and enumeration of pathogens
  • microbial identification techniques

Attention is also given to the validation of analytical methods and Quality Assurance in the laboratory. Because of their present importance to the food industry, additional chapters on current and developing legislation in the European Union and the significance of Escherichia coli 0157 and other VTEC are included.


  • Analyzes key aspects of microbiological analysis
  • Examines the validation of analytical methods and quality assurance in the laboratory
  • Evaluates current and developing legislation in the European Union
  • Discusses the significance of Escherichia coli 0157 and other VTEC


Microbiological Testing in Food Safety and Quality Management

  • Control Systems Used in Food Industry
  • Role of Microbiological Testing
  • Applying Microbiological Testing

Legislation for Red Meat, Poultry and Eggs: Which Way Forward?

  • Codex Alimentarius (Food Code)
  • Regulation in the EU
  • EU Regulation on Microbiological Criteria
  • Annex I: Criteria

Escherichia Coli and other VTEC in the Meat Industry

  • Pathogenic Potential
  • Key Outbreaks of E. coli 0157 and Other VTEC
  • Occurrence in Red Meat and Poultry
  • Regulatory Measures
  • Laboratory Methods of Isolation and Identification
  • Industry Measures
  • Consumer Responses

Faecal Indicator Organisms for Red Meat and Poultry

  • Origins and Terminology of the Indicator Concept
  • Enterobacteriaceae, Coliforms, and E. coli
  • Monitoring Faecal Contamination of Meat
  • Other Indicator Organisms
  • Use of E. coli for Determining Cross-Contamination

Spoilage Organisms of Red Meat and Poultry

  • Microflora of Raw Meat Immediately after Slaughter (Red Meat and Poultry)
  • Factors Affecting Flora Development and Changes Leading to Spoilage
  • Spoilage of Vacuum-Packed Red Meat of Normal pH Due to Psychtophilic of Psychotropic Clostridium spp
  • Bone Taint
  • Spoilage of Uneviscerated Poultry
  • Effect of Storage Temperature on Spoilage
  • Metabolic Products Responsible for Spoilage
  • Isolation and Identification of Spoilage Organisms

Sampling of Red Meat

  • Purposes of Routine Microbiological Sampling
  • Target Organisms
  • Sampling Plans
  • Sampling Sites
  • Methods of Sampling
  • Detection Methods and Enumeration of Bacteria
  • Interpretation of Data

Sampling Methods for Poultry-Meat Products

  • Origins and Distribution of Carcass Contaminants
  • Microbial Attachment to Skin and Other Carcass Surfaces
  • Sampling Carcasses in the Processing Plant
  • Methods of Sampling Carcasses
  • Sampling of Frozen Meat
  • Cut Portions and Other Raw Products
  • Cooked, Ready-to-Eat Products
  • Pooling Samples
  • Sample Handling and Transportation

Microbiological Monitoring of Cleaning and Disinfection in Food Plants

  • Sanitization
  • Sources of Product Contamination
  • Development of a Testing Programme
  • Testing Plant Surfaces
  • Rapid Methods
  • Air Testing
  • Data Illustration and Limit Values

Microbiological Analysis of Eggs and Egg Products

  • Shell Eggs
  • Bulk Liquids

Detection and Enumeration of Pathogens in Meat, Poultry and Egg Products

  • Cultural Methods
  • Rapid Methods
  • Factors in the Choice of Technique

Techniques for Identifying Foodborne Microorganisms

  • Handling and Storage of Isolates
  • Storage of Isolates
  • Preliminary Examination of Isolates
  • Identification Systems
  • Commonly-Used Selective and Differential Media
  • Automated Microbial Identification
  • Systems for Typing Isolates Following Identification
  • Genetic Methods for Typing Bacterial Strains

Validation of Analytical Methods Used in Food Microbiology

  • Definition of Performance Characteristics
  • Validation Protocols
  • Use of Validation Schemes for Evaluating the Performance of Alternative Levels
  • Application of Validated Methods in Accredited Laboratories

Quality Assurance in the Food Microbiology Laboratory

  • Legislation and Codes for Practice
  • Accreditation
  • Internal Quality Control
  • Quality Assurance Requirements: Analytical Methods
  • Criteria for Valid Methods of Analysis
  • Method Validation through Proficiency Testing
  • Measurement Uncertainty for the Microbiologist


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Microbiological Analysis of Red Meat, Poultry and Eggs
edited by Geoffrey C. Mead
2007 • 348 pages • $228.95 + shipping
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