Bitterness Modification in Food Processing
from C.H.I.P.S.

Modifying Bitterness
Mechanism, Ingredients, and Applications

edited by Glenn Roy

This book provides a thorough science-based presentation of the subject, including the latest findings on the mechanism of bitterness perception and the many ingredients and methods available to modify bitterness in specific foods and beverages.

This is the first comprehensive treatment of this subject in book form. The up-to-date information will serve the information needs of all those involved in the research, development, formulation and processing of food, beverage and oral pharmaceutical products.


  • Comprehensive presentation of bitterness modification in food, beverage and oral pharmaceutical formulation and processing
  • In-depth science-based examination of the bitterness perception mechanism
  • Extensive current information on practical applications in formulating a wide range of food and beverage products


Section I. Mechanism, Ingredients, Applications

  • Recent Overview of the Mechanism of Bitter Taste
    Transduction and Perception. Rats and Mice. Gerbils. Bovine. Rabbit. Frog. Primates and Humans.
  • General Correlation between Models of Sweetness and Bitterness Perception
    Theoretical Studies. Common Similarities, Experimental Data. Sensory Measurements. Case Studies.
  • The Evolution of in vitro Taste Sensors
  • Newer Chemical Identification of Bitter Principles and Sources.
    Health Benefits. Bitter as Deterrent. Bitter Principles and Sources. Miscellaneous Bitter Principles and Sources.
  • General Ingredient or Process Approaches to Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction in Foods and Beverages
    Ingredient Approaches. Process Approaches. Inclusion Complexes, Chelating Agents, Polysaccharides and Ion-Exchange Membranes. Chemical Modifications of Bitter Substrates. Specific Applications of Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction.

Section II. A Symposium
  • Interactions between Sweet and Bitter Tastes
    Experimental Observations. Mechanistic Implications. Practical Implications.
  • Factors Affecting the Perception of Bitterness: A Review
    Bitter Taste. Receptor Events. Innervation and Coding. Bitterness Measurement. Scalar Studies. Temporal Studies. Factors Affecting Bitterness Perception: Compound Effects. Taste Interactions. Medium of Presentation. Viscosity. Temperature. Oral Chemical Irritants. Ethanol. Mode of Presentation. Taste Modifiers. Prop Status. Salivary Status. Age.
  • Bitterness Perception Across the Life Span
    Taste Threshold. Suprathreshold Intensity. Weber Ratios. Chemosensory Preference.
  • Suppression of Bitterness by Sodium: Implications for Flavor Enhancement
    General Methods. Results. Discussion.
  • Development of a Low-Sodium Salt: A Model for Bitterness Inhibition
  • The Use of Exopeptidases in Bitter Taste Modification
    The Nature of Bitterness. Enzyme Selection. Peptidases and Debittering. Use of Peptidases to Debitter Protein Hydrolyzates. Use of Peptidases to Prevent Bitterness in Cheese.
  • Specific Inhibitor for Bitter Taste
    Inhibition of Frog Taste Nerve Responses to Bitter Substances by the Lipoprotein. High Adsorption Ability of Phosphatidic Acid-Containing Lipoproteins to Frog Tongue Surface and Hydrophobic Model Membranes. Selective Inhibition of Bitter Taste in Humans by Phosphatidic Acid-Containing Lipoprotein. Inhibition of Bitter Taste in Humans by Phosphatidic Acid.

Section III. Applications in Oral Pharmaceuticals
  • General Ingredient or Process Approaches to Bitterness Inhibition and Reduction in Oral Pharmaceuticals
    Sweeteners, Flavors and Amino Acids. Lipids. Lecithin-Like Substances. Surfactants. Coatings and Complexes with Carbohydrates, Resins, Proteins and Zeolites. Carbohydrates. Proteins. Inclusion Complexes. Resins. Zeolites. Salt Preparation. Functional Group Alteration.
  • Cautions and Prospects in Taste-Masking Formulations
    Applications That Need Commercialization of New Technologies and Additives.


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Modifying Bitterness
Mechanism, Ingredients, and Applications
edited by Glenn Roy

332 pages • $248.95 + shipping

Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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