Nuclear Power Book from C.H.I.P.S.

Nuclear Decommissioning
Planning, Execution and International Experience
edited by Michele Laraia

Nuclear Decommissioning: Planning, Execution and International Experience addresses the nuclear decommissioning processes and technologies applicable to nuclear power plants and other civilian nuclear facilities.

Part One focuses on the fundamental planning issues in starting a nuclear decommissioning process, from principles and safety regulations, to financing and project management.

Part Two covers the execution phase of nuclear decommissioning projects, detailing processes and technologies such as dismantling, decontamination, and radioactive waste management, as well as environmental remediation, site clearance and reuse.

Part Three details international experience in the decommissioning of nuclear applications, including the main nuclear reactor types and nuclear fuel cycle facilities, as well as small nuclear facilities and legacy nuclear waste sites.


1. Introduction to nuclear decommissioning: definitions and history

Part 1: Planning: Fundamental Issues in Starting a Nuclear Decommissioning Process

2. Overview of nuclear decommissioning principles and approaches

  • The scale of the decommissioning industry
  • What is decommissioning?
  • Reasons for final shutdown
  • The no-action baseline
  • History and evolution
  • Responsibilities and interests of parties involved in decommissioning
  • Overview of technical and non-technical aspects relevant to decommissioning

3. Nuclear decommissioning policy, infrastructure, strategies and project planning

  • Decommissioning policy
  • Factors affecting decommissioning strategy
  • Options for decommissioning
  • The planning process

4. Financing and economics of nuclear facility decommissioning

  • Nuclear decommissioning cost estimation and financing
  • Recent experience in decommissioning
  • Funding schemes

5. Characterisation of radioactive materials in redundant nuclear facilities: key issues for the decommissioning plan

  • Characterisation objectives
  • The radionuclide inventory
  • Stages in the characterisation process
  • Characterisation methods
  • Equipment and measurement techniques for characterising wastes
  • Hazardous materials
  • Physical characterisation
  • Economic issues

6. Managing the transition from operation to decommissioning of a nuclear facility

  • Objectives of the transition period
  • Strategic aspects
  • Management and administrative aspects
  • Implementation aspects

7. Nuclear decommissioning project organization, management and human resources

  • Organization responsible for decommissioning
  • Responsibilities, qualifications and training
  • Contractors vs operational staff
  • Management of change

8. Public engagement and stakeholder consultation in nuclear decommissioning projects

  • Definition of a stakeholder
  • Stakeholders relevant to the decommissioning process
  • Identifying stakeholders
  • The Dounreay low level waste disposal facility
  • Factors that may influence stakeholder involvement in decommissioning
  • How to handle stakeholders

9. Radiological protection in the decommissioning of nuclear facilities: safety, regulations and licensing

  • Personnel health and safety issues (ALARA)
  • Environmental protection
  • Risk prevention and decommissioning preparation
  • National and international guidance
  • The licensing process for decommissioning

10. Nuclear facility design and operation to facilitate decommissioning: lessons learned

  • Project factors relevant to design for decommissioning
  • Physical features and practice to facilitate decommissioning
  • Application of lessons learned – practical guidance

Part 2: Execution: Nuclear Decommissioning Processes and Technologies, Radioactive Waste Management, Site Rehabilitation and Cleanup

11. Safe enclosure and entombment strategies in nuclear decommissioning projects

  • Definition of safe enclosure and entombment
  • Examples for deferred dismantling strategies (safe enclosure)
  • Examples for entombment
  • Reasons for selecting the deferred dismantling option
  • Preparatory activities
  • Management of a safe enclosure/entombment period
  • National approaches and international guidance

12. Dismantling and demolition processes and technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects

  • Thermal cutting techniques
  • Mechanical cutting techniques
  • Factors affecting selection of cutting processes and technology
  • Cutting versus intact handling of large components
  • Demolition of buildings
  • Application of specific cutting techniques: pros and cons

13. Decontamination processes and technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects

  • Why and when to decontaminate
  • Decontamination of metals
  • Decontamination of building surfaces
  • Factors affecting selection of decontamination processes and technology
  • Application of specific decontamination techniques: pros and cons

14. Remote operation and robotics technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects

  • Remote operation and robotics – definitions and principles
  • Development and application of remotely operated and robotics technologies in decommissioning

15. Radioactive waste management in nuclear decommissioning projects

  • Spent fuel removal as a pre-requisite to decommissioning
  • Airborne, waterborne and solid waste from decommissioning: amounts and characterization
  • Ventilation and filtration requirements for airborne waste
  • Management of liquid waste including decontamination solutions
  • Solid waste characterisation and segregation for onward processing
  • Recycling/reuse and clearance processes
  • Waste management and disposal in decommissioning projects

16. Environmental remediation and restoration technologies in nuclear decommissioning projects

  • The environmental restoration process
  • Types of site remediation techniques and technologies applicable in nuclear decommissioning
  • Ex situ remediation techniques and technologies
  • In situ treatment technologies
  • Remediation of contaminated groundwater
  • The disposal of radioactive wastes from remediation

17. Site clearance and licence termination in nuclear decommissioning projects

  • Regulatory approaches for site clearance and licence termination
  • A process for site clearance and licence termination

18. Reuse and redevelopment of decommissioned nuclear sites: strategies and lessons learned

  • Site redevelopment as an integral part of a facility’s lifecycle
  • Early planning for redevelopment
  • Policy issues in planning for redevelopment
  • Management issues
  • Technical issues
  • Social issues
  • Operating experience in reuse of decommissioned sites
  • The non-nuclear sector

Part 3: International Experience: Nuclear Decommissioning Applications and Case Studies

  • Types of materials and decommissioning issues
  • Decommissioning technologies for light water reactor (LWR) major components
  • Specific LWR reactor vessel (RV) internals segmentation experience in the US
  • Specific LWR RV disposition experience in the US
  • Major component dismantling
  • Decommissioning technologies for LWR buildings and structures
  • Site remediation and reuse in the US

20. Decommissioning of Russian-type water-cooled water-moderated nuclear reactors (WWERs)

  • WWER-specific features relevant to decommissioning
  • Issues pertaining to WWER decommissioning planning and implementation
  • Decommissioning technologies for WWER activated components (RPV and internals)
  • Decommissioning technologies for WWER building structures
  • Decommissioning waste (material) management

21. Decommissioning of gas cooled nuclear reactors (GCRs)

  • Types of materials and their decommissioning issues
  • Decommissioning strategies for gas cooled reactors (GCRs)
  • Decommissioning technologies for GCR containment components
  • Application of particular techniques to GCR decommissioning projects

22. Decommissioning of nuclear fuel cycle facilities

  • Overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities
  • Decommissioning strategies and plans
  • Decommissioning phases
  • Specific issues in decommissioning of NFC facilities
  • Decommissioning techniques for NFC facilities

23. Decommissioning of small nuclear facilities: industrial, medical and research facilities

  • Types of facilities
  • Planning and management
  • Application of particular techniques
  • Waste management

24. Decommissioning of legacy nuclear waste sites: Dounreay, UK

  • Decommissioning programme
  • High-hazard decommissioning projects
  • High-alpha-contaminated facilities decommissioning
  • Pond decommissioning
  • Fuel production and reprocessing facilities decommissioning
  • Cells and laboratories decommissioning
  • Legacy waste facilities
  • Fuels management
  • Infrastructure decommissioning

25. Decommissioning of legacy nuclear waste sites: Idaho National Laboratory, USA

  • Types of materials and decommissioning issues
  • Waste retrieval and decontamination processes
  • Application of appropriate decommissioning technologies
  • Environmental restoration and site clearance case studies

26. Information management for nuclear decommissioning projects

  • Importance of information management in decommissioning
  • Key decommissioning information
  • Records and information management and preservation
  • Knowledge management in decommissioning


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Nuclear Decommissioning
Planning, Execution and International Experience
edited by Michele Laraia

2012 • 856 pages • $354.00 + shipping
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