Sweeteners Handbook from C.H.I.P.S.

Optimizing Sweet Taste in Foods
by W. J. Spillane

Optimizing Sweet Taste in Foods summarizes key research on what determines consumer perceptions of sweet taste, the range of sweet-tasting compounds and the ways their use in foods can be optimized.

Optimizing Sweet Taste in Foods:

  • details the factors involved in the perception of sweet taste
  • offers strategies for measuring consumer perception of sweet taste
  • examines the compounds currently used to achieve sweet taste in food
  • analyzes the future trends in improving the taste of sweeteners, using natural sweeteners, and hydrocolloid-sweetener interactions in food products
  • investigates the use of biotechnology to develop sweetness potentiators and bitter blockers


PART 1 Factors Affecting Sweet Taste Perception

Stimulation of taste cells by sweet taste compounds

  • Peripheral organization of taste
  • The sweet taste receptor(s)
  • Downstream signaling components
  • Putative cellular mechanism(s) for the signal termination of sweet taste

Genetic differences in sweet taste perception

  • PTC/PROP Tasting
  • Sweetness: Relation to PROP, Fungiform Papillae Density, T2R38
  • Relating Genetic Taste Markers with Dietary Sweet Behaviors
  • Sweet Liking: Relation to PROP, Fungiform Papillae Density, T2R38
  • Variation in Other Bitter Markers
  • SAC Gene: Human homolog and hedonic response to sweeteners

Children’s liking of sweet tastes and its biological basis

  • Ontogeny of sweet taste preferences: from fetal life to adolescence
  • Role of experiential factors on sweet taste preferences
  • Physiological properties of sweet tastes

Taste-odour interactions in sweet taste perception

  • Overview of the literature
  • Factors affecting taste-odour interactions
  • Mechanisms of taste-odour interactions
  • Implications for food product development

Taste-ingredient interactions modulating sweetness

  • Interactions between sweeteners and bitter compounds
  • Interactions between sweeteners and acids
  • Interactions of sweet and salty compounds
  • Interactions of sweet compounds with other sweet compounds

Measuring consumers’ perceptions of sweet taste

  • Methods to determine consumer’s perception of sweet taste
  • Overview of consumer’s perception of sweetness

Part 2: Types of Sweet Tasting Compounds


  • Sugar manufacture
  • Sugar products
  • Properties of sugar
  • Sugar functionality in food products


  • Types of polyols, chemical structures and their manufacture
  • Physicochemical and functional properties
  • Physiological properties
  • Advantages and disadvantages of using polyols
  • Applications
  • Mixed sweetener potential of polyols
  • Regulatory status

Low-calorie sweeteners

  • Low-calorie sweeteners
  • Health-related developments in low-calorie sweeteners
  • Market-related developments in low-calorie sweeteners
  • Implications for food product design

Reduced-calorie sweeteners and caloric alternatives

  • Reduced-calorie sweeteners
  • Alternative caloric sweeteners
  • Established caloric alternatives

Part 3: Improving Sweet Tasting Compounds and Optimizing Their Use in Foods

Analysing and predicting properties of sweet-tasting compounds

  • QSAR models
  • Pharmacophore models
  • Receptor models

Discovering new natural sweeteners

  • Commercially used natural sweeteners
  • Approaches to natural sweetener discovery
  • Improvement of sweet taste

Molecular design and the development of new sweeteners

  • The historical development of sweetness consumption
  • Commercial alternative sweetener discoveries
  • Molecular design – novel approaches novel chances
  • Screening and visualising new sweeteners candidates
  • Molecular design in commercial sweetener development
  • From discovery to commercial products

Developing new sweeteners from natural compounds

  • Importance of developing new sweeteners from natural compounds
  • Methods of designing new sweeteners from natural compounds
  • Synthesising new sweeteners from natural compounds

Improving the taste of sweeteners

  • Blending sweeteners to provide synergy
  • Blending sweeteners to improve taste profile
  • Blending sweeteners to improve temporal profile
  • Using additives to improve taste quality of sweeteners

Analysing and predicting synergy in sweetener blends

  • Sweet taste measurements
  • Response of a mixture vs responses to its components: the perceptive models
  • Response of a mixture vs
  • concentrations of its components: the ? (Gamma) family models
  • Other interaction models

Bulk sweet tasting compounds in food product development

  • Characteristics of bulk sweeteners
  • Sensory properties
  • Physical functionalities
  • Bulk sweeteners

Hydrocolloid-sweetener interactions in food products

  • Hydrocolloid-sweetener interactions
  • Mechanisms of hydrocolloid-sweetener interactions
  • Implications for food product development

Future directions: using biotechnology to discover new sweeteners, bitter blockers and sweetness potentiators

  • Understanding taste at the molecular level enables discovery of novel sweeteners
  • The use of bitter blockers to improve sweet taste


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Optimizing Sweet Taste in Foods
by W. J. Spillane
2006 • 448 pages • $268.95 + shipping
Texas residents please add 6.75 % sales tax

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