Pesticide Residues Handbook
from C.H.I.P.S.

Pesticide, Veterinary and Other Residues in Food
edited by David H. Watson

Pesticide, Veterinary and Other Residues in Food reviews the wealth of recent research on assessing and managing the risks from pesticide, veterinary, and other chemical residues in food.

Part 1 covers the assessment and management of risks, with individual chapters on genetic susceptibility to dietary carcinogens, good agricultural practice and HACCP systems, targeted and rapid methods for analysing residues in food and ways of assessing the mutagenicity of chemicals in food.

Part 2 looks at veterinary residues, covering their safety, toxicology and detection.

Part 3 examines pesticides, with chapters on surveillance and detection methods for fungicides and herbicides.

In the final part, there are chapters summarising a wide range of other chemical residues in food, from xenostrogens/endocrine disruptors and dietary estrogens to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls.



Genetic susceptibility to dietary carcinogens

  • Diet and cancer
  • Dietary carcinogens and anticarcinogens: mycotoxins, aeterocyclic amines, aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds and phytochemicals
  • Genetic influences on carcinogen-metabolising enzymes
  • Evidence of diet-gene interactions

Assessing the mutagenicity of chemicals in food: the case of pesticides
  • Mutagenicity test programmes
  • Criteria for the testing of pesticides
  • Selecting appropriate tests
  • Assessing dose-response relationships
  • Developing test methodologies
  • Appendix: the genotoxicity tests listed in EU Directive / Annex V

The impact of chemical residues: the case of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
  • Introduction: risks posed by organohalogen compounds
  • Organohalogens as neurotoxins
  • Neurobehavioural consequences of PCB exposure
  • Molecular mechanisms of organohalogen-induced toxicity

Targeted and rapid methods in analysing residues in food

  • The principles of immunoassays
  • The use of immuno-affinity chromatography
  • Developing immunoassays to detect residues in food and water
  • Recent developments in immunoassays
  • Recent developments in immuno-affinity chromatography
  • The use of immunosensors in residue analysis

Good agricultural practice and HACCP systems in the management of pesticides and veterinary residues on the farm

  • Safety issues in the food supply chain
  • Good agricultural practice
  • The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system
  • The HACCP study
  • Implementing and maintaining HACCP systems


Assessing the safety of veterinary drug residues

  • Types of toxicity study
  • Setting maximum residue limits (MRLs) for veterinary drugs in the EU
  • Setting MRLs for particular foods in the EU
  • International regulation: the role of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (JECFA)

The toxicology of particular veterinary drug residues
  • Griseofulvin
  • Â-Lactam antibiotics: penicillins and cephalosporins
  • Macrolide antibiotics: spiramycin, tylosin and tilmicosin
  • Aminoglycosides
  • Fluoroquinolones
  • Sulfadimidine (sulfamethazine)
  • Carbadox and olaqindox
  • Furazolidine and related compounds
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Ivermectin and related compounds
  • Tranquillisers: xylazine and azerepone
  • Carazolol

The rapid detection of veterinary drug residues
  • Veterinary medicinal products
  • Methods for detecting residues
  • Validating detection methods
  • Rapid on-line confirmation of different veterinary residues

New techniques for the rapid detection of growth promoters in farm animals
  • Detecting the use of growth promoters
  • Existing detection techniques and their limitations
  • The use of immunosensors to detect growth promoters
  • Key issues in developing new biosensors

The rapid detection of coccidiostat drug residues in farm animals
  • The use of anticoccidial drugs in poultry farming
  • The use of time-resolved fluoroimmunoassays (TR-FIAs)
  • Screening for coccidiostat residues by automated TR-FIAs


Surveillance for pesticide residues

  • Pesticide regulation in the US
  • Sample collection, preparation and analysis
  • Results from pesticide surveillance programs
  • Interpreting the results of pesticide surveillance programs

The rapid detection of pesticide residues
  • Detecting pesticides: physiochemical methods
  • Detecting pesticides: biological methods
  • The principles of biosensors
  • Developing low-cost biosensors
  • Using biosensors: pesticide residues in grain, fruit and vegetables

Detecting residues of urea and carbamate pesticides
  • Key issues in detection
  • Sample preparation
  • Techniques for rapid screening of samples
  • Separation techniques
  • Detectors used in combination with separation techniques

      Detecting fungicide residues
      • Conventional techniques and immunoassays for detecting fungicide residues
      • Detecting fungicide residues using biosensors

      Detecting herbicide residues
      • Key issues in detecting herbicide residues in food
      • Sample preparation
      • Analytical methods for particular herbicide residues
      • Levels of herbicide residues found in food


      Xenostrogens/endocrine disruptors

      • Mechanism of action of xenoestrogens
      • Assays for xenoestogens
      • Measuring risks from different xenoestrogens
      • Health effects of xenoestrogens
      • Xenoestrogens in food and levels of dietary intake
      • Regulatory control of xenostrogens

      Dietary estogens
      • Defining dietary estrogens
      • The range of dietary estrogens
      • Assessing the estrogenicty of dietary estrogens
      • Assessing the toxicity of dietary estrogens
      • The benefits of dietary estrogens: cancer prevention
      • The benefits of dietary estrogens: preventing osteoporosis and atherosclerosis
      • Dietary intakes of estrogens

      Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
      • Physical and chemical properties of PAHs
      • Health effects of PAHs
      • Analytical methods for PAHs
      • The occurrence of PAHs in food

      Dioxins and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
      • Dioxins and PCBs
      • Assessing the toxic effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs
      • Analytical methods and current exposure levels
      • Brominated flame retardants
      • Abbreviations

      Detecting organic contaminants in food: the case of fish
      • The problem of organic contaminants
      • Sources of organic contaminants
      • Organic contaminants in fish
      • Analysing particular organic contaminants
      • Health issues for organic contaminants in fish

      Identifying allergenic proteins in food
      • The nature of allergens and allergies
      • Types of plant food allergen and their characteristics
      • Identifying potentially allergenic proteins: bioinformatics
      • Identifying potentially allergenic proteins: resistance to pepinolysis and IgE reactivity

      Toxicological screening of paper and board packaging
      • Regulatory background
      • Requirements for toxicological testing
      • Cycotoxicity tests. Genotoxicity tests
      • Applying tests to paper and board

      Detecting metal contamination
      • Methods of preparing food samples for analysis
      • Analytical methods for metal detection
      • Cadmium in food
      • Lead in food
      • Mercury in food
      • Arsenic in food

      Mycotoxins: detection and control
      • Types of mycotoxin found in food and animal feed
      • Risk management and control of mycotoxins in food
      • Sampling for mycotoxins
      • Standardisation of methods for detecting mycotoxins
      • The range of analytical methods for mycotoxins
      • Dealing with mycotoxins in developing countries


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      Pesticide, Veterinary and Other Residues in Food
      edited by David H. Watson
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