Bakery Science book from C.H.I.P.S.

Principles of Breadmaking
Functionality of Raw Materials and Process Steps
by Piet Sluimer

Principles of Breadmaking is designed to give the fundamental principles and science behind the baking rules and recipes most bakers, technologists, and students are accustomed to.

Functional properties of ingredients and interactions occurring during each step in the baking process are presented in straightforward chemical and physical terms understandable to anyone with a background in baking. The knowledge gained will allow for the optimization of recipes and processes of all types of bread, including pre-baked breads and frozen doughs.

Principles of Breadmaking describes the chemistry and basic physics behind a recipe, what happens with ingredients during mixing, the pros and cons of dough temperatures, conditions for fermentation and proof, and handling of the dough throughout the process. It also describes the transformation of dough into the final product in the oven in terms of heat transfer to the dough and heat transport in the product. By covering the functionality of unit operations and raw materials at this level, the reader is given the foundation needed to optimize recipes and the production process.

Principles of Breadmaking provides detailed, critical descriptions of the processes involved in creating prebaked breads and frozen doughs. The chapter on prebaked breads discusses cooling, ambient storage, chilled storage, frozen storage, storage in a modified atmosphere, and the rebaking process. Moisture migration, solubility of gases, diffusion of gases, yeast, and drying and condensation are discussed in a chapter dedicated to frozen doughs. Both chapters also include sections on optimizing procedures and recipes.

Principles of Breadmaking is an essential troubleshooting reference for bakers, food technologists, product developers, millers, ingredient suppliers, and newcomers to the bakery business and related industries.


  • Teaches the baking professional how to optimize the recipe for any type of bread
  • Describes the functionality of raw materials used in breadmaking
  • Explains the functionality of mixing, fermentation and proof, baking, and cooling
  • Includes tables of uses for specific carbohydrates
  • Provides international comparisons of HACCP experiences in baking
  • Helps the baking technologist select the optimal conditions for making frozen dough and prebaked bread
  • Supplies the tools for the best results in baking and re-baking
  • Details the pros and cons of different dough temperatures


  1. Principles in Brief
    • Ingredients and Formulations
    • Processing Steps: Mixing • Fermentation • Proof • Baking
    • Gluten and Dough Development, Gas Retention, and Baking Quality
    • Bread Properties: Fresh Bread • Stored Bread
    • Interruption of the Breadmaking Process

  2. Basic Ingredients
    • Wheat Flour: Composition of Wheat • Extraction Rate and Baking Quality • Wheat Flour Components • Tests of the Functionality of Wheat Flour • Flour Additives
    • Water
    • Yeast: The Fermentation Reaction • Commercial Forms of Yeast
    • Salt

  3. Optional Ingredients
    • Fat
    • Emulsifiers
    • Enzymes: Amylases • Hemicellulases • Other Enzymes
    • Sugars
    • Dry Milk Products
    • Flours from Beans and Pulses
    • Vital Gluten
    • Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
    • Developments in Bread Improvers

  4. Mixing
    • Homogenization of the Ingredients
    • Occlusion of Air
    • Gluten Development
    • Intensity of Mixing
    • Degree of Mixing: Measurement of Degree of Mixing • Influence on Bread
    • Dough Consistency
    • Dough Temperature
    • Cooling of Dough
    • Sponges and Straight Dough

  5. Fermentation and Proof
    • Initial Growth of Gas Nuclei: Disappearance of Oxygen • Diffusion of Carbon Dioxide • Change in Carbon Dioxide State • Pressure in Gas Cells
    • Stability of Gas Cells and Gas Retention
    • Treatments During Fermentation
    • Speed of Fermentation
    • Change in pH During Fermentation
    • Fermentation Conditions
    • Temperature Changes During Fermentation: Fermentation Reaction • Evaporation and Condensation • Air Temperature
    • Traditional Breadmaking Processes
    • Short Breadmaking Processes: Mechanical Dough Development • Activated Dough Development • Use of an Enzyme • Increased Yeast
    • Final Proof

  6. Baking and Cooling
    • Mechanisms of Heat Transfer: Radiation • Convection • Conduction • Condensation
    • Heat Flux and Heat Balance
    • Heat Transport Within the Dough
    • Crumb Formation
    • Crust Formation
    • Ovenspring
    • The Role of Water Vapor
    • Cooling of Bread

  7. Prebaked Bread
    • The Prebaking Process
    • Cooling
    • Ambient Storage
    • Chilled Storage
    • Frozen Storage
    • Storage in a Modified Atmosphere: Contamination • Gas Composition • Packaging Material • Packaging Technology
    • The Rebaking Process: Prebaking vs. Rebaking • Starch Reversal • Crust Formation • Crust Color • Flavor
    • Optimization of Recipe and Procedure

  8. Frozen Dough
    • Background and History
    • Changes in Dough and Bread Through Freezing
    • Moisture Displacement
    • Solubility of Gases
    • Diffusion of Gases
    • Yeast
    • Drying and Condensation
    • Optimization of Recipe and Procedure: Recipe • Procedure
    • Fully Proofed Frozen Dough


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Principles of Breadmaking
Functionality of Raw Materials and Process Steps
by Piet Sluimer

2005 • 212 pages • $128.00 + shipping
Texas residents please add 7 % sales tax

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